1,462 research outputs found

    Induced interactions in dilute atomic gases and liquid helium mixtures

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    In dilute mixtures of two atomic gases, interactions between two minority atoms acquire a contribution due to interaction with the majority component. Using thermodynamic arguments, we derive expressions for this induced interaction for both fermions and bosons for arbitrary strength of the interaction between the two components. Implications of the work for the theory of dilute solutions of 3^3He in liquid 4^4He are discussed.Comment: 7 pages, 1 figure, NORDITA-2012-3

    Instability and control of a periodically-driven Bose-Einstein condensate

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    We investigate the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate held in an optical lattice under the influence of a strong periodic driving potential. Studying the mean-field version of the Bose-Hubbard model reveals that the condensate becomes highly unstable when the effective intersite tunneling becomes negative. We further show how controlling the sign of the tunneling can be used as a powerful tool to manage the dispersion of an atomic wavepacket, and thus to create a pulsed atomic soliton laser.Comment: 4 pages, 3 eps figure

    Normal mass density of a superfluid Fermi gas at unitarity

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    We calculate the normal mass density of a paired Fermi gas at unitarity. The dominant contribution near the superfluid transition is from fermionic quasiparticle excitations, and is thus sensitive to the pairing gap. A comparison with the recent experiment of Sidorenkov et al. suggests that the superfluid gap near the transition temperature is larger than the BCS value, but the data do not permit a quantitative inference of the gap. Calculations of the quenched moment of inertia of a BCS superfluid in a harmonic trap are in reasonable agreement with the earlier experiment of Riedl et al.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figures, published versio

    Dynamics of the inner crust of neutron stars: hydrodynamics, elasticity and collective modes

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    We present calculations of the hydrodynamics of the inner crust of neutron stars, where a superfluid neutron liquid coexists with a lattice of neutron-rich nuclei. The long-wavelength collective oscillations are combinations of phonons in the lattice and phonons in the superfluid neutrons. Velocities of collective modes are calculated from information about effective nucleon-nucleon interactions derived from Lattimer and Swesty's microscopic calculations based on a compressible liquid drop picture of the atomic nuclei and the surrounding neutrons.Comment: Preprint NORDITA-2013-1

    Center of mass rotation and vortices in an attractive Bose gas

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    The rotational properties of an attractively interacting Bose gas are studied using analytical and numerical methods. We study perturbatively the ground state phase space for weak interactions, and find that in an anharmonic trap the rotational ground states are vortex or center of mass rotational states; the crossover line separating these two phases is calculated. We further show that the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is a valid description of such a gas in the rotating frame and calculate numerically the phase space structure using this equation. It is found that the transition between vortex and center of mass rotation is gradual; furthermore the perturbative approach is valid only in an exceedingly small portion of phase space. We also present an intuitive picture of the physics involved in terms of correlated successive measurements for the center of mass state.Comment: version2, 17 pages, 5 figures (3 eps and 2 jpg

    Elastic properties of polycrystalline dense matter

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    Elastic properties of the solid regions of neutron star crusts and white dwarfs play an important role in theories of stellar oscillations. Matter in compact stars is presumably polycrystalline and, since the elastic properties of single crystals of such matter are very anisotropic, it is necessary to relate elastic properties of the polycrystal to those of a single crystal. We calculate the effective shear modulus of polycrystalline matter with randomly oriented crystallites using a self-consistent theory that has been very successful in applications to terrestrial materials and show that previous calculations overestimate the shear modulus by approximately 28%.Comment: Preprint NORDITA-2015-1

    Nucleus--nucleus interactions in the inner crust of neutron stars

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    The interaction between nuclei in the inner crust of neutron stars consists of two contributions, the so-called "direct" interaction and an "induced" one due to density changes in the neutron fluid. For large nuclear separations rr the contributions from nuclear forces to each of these terms are shown to be nonzero. In the static limit they are equal in magnitude but have opposite signs and they cancel exactly. We analyze earlier results on effective interactions in the light of this finding. We consider the properties of long-wavelength collective modes and, in particular, calculate the degree of mixing between the lattice phonons and the phonons in the neutron superfluid. Using microscopic theory, we calculate the net non-Coulombic contribution to the nucleus--nucleus interaction and show that, for large rr, the leading term is due to exchange of two phonons and varies as 1/r71/r^7: it is an analog of the Casimir--Polder interaction between neutral atoms.Comment: 11 pages, 4 figures, 3 table

    Superfluid Density of Neutrons in the Inner Crust of Neutron Stars: New Life for Pulsar Glitch Models

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    Calculations of the effects of band structure on the neutron superfluid density in the crust of neutron stars made under the assumption that the effects of pairing are small [N. Chamel, Phys. Rev. C 85, 035801 (2012)] lead to moments of inertia of superfluid neutrons so small that the crust alone is insufficient to account for the magnitude of neutron star glitches. Inspired by earlier work on ultracold atomic gases in an optical lattice, we investigate fermions with attractive interactions in a periodic lattice in the mean-field approximation. The effects of band structure are suppressed when the pairing gap is of order or greater than the strength of the lattice potential. By applying the results to the inner crust of neutron stars, we conclude that the reduction of the neutron superfluid density is considerably less than previously estimated and, consequently, it is premature to rule out models of glitches based on neutron superfluidity in the crust.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure
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