861 research outputs found

    Pattern and Predictors of Weight Gain During Pregnancy Among HIV-1-Infected Women from Tanzania

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    Progression of HIV disease is often accompanied by weight loss and wasting. Gestational weight gain is a strong determinant of maternal and neonatal outcomes; however, the pattern and predictors of weight gain during pregnancy among HIV-positive women are unknown. We obtained monthly anthropometric measurements in a cohort of 957 pregnant women from Tanzania who were HIV infected. We estimated the weekly rate of weight gain at various points during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and computed rate differences between levels of sociodemographic, nutritional, immunologic, and parasitic variables at the first prenatal visit. The change in mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) from baseline to delivery was also examined. The rate of weight gain decreased progressively during pregnancy. There was an average decline of 1 cm in MUAC between weeks 12 and 38. Lower level of education and helminthic infections at first visit were associated with decreased adjusted rates of weight gain during the third trimester. High baseline MUAC, not contributing to household income, lower serum retinol and selenium concentrations, advanced clinical stage of HIV disease, and malaria infection were related to decreased rates of weight gain during the second trimester. Low baseline CD4 T-cell counts were related to a poorer pattern of weight gain throughout pregnancy. Prevention and treatment of parasitic infections and improvement of nutritional status are likely to enhance the pattern of gestational weight gain among HIV-infected women

    Sexual Attraction Toward Clients, Use of Supervision, and Prior Training: A Qualitative Study of Predoctoral Psychology Interns

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    Interviews were conducted with 13 predoctoral psychology interns about an experience of sexual attraction toward a client, use of supervision to address the sexual attraction, and prior training regarding sexual attraction. Results indicated that sexual attraction to clients consisted of physical and interpersonal aspects. Therapists believed they were more invested and attentive than usual to clients to whom they were sexually attracted, and they indicated that sexual attraction created distance, distraction, and loss of objectivity. In terms of supervision, only half of the participants disclosed their sexual attraction to supervisors, and supervisors seldom initiated the discussion. Furthermore, trainees found it helpful when supervisors normalized the sexual attraction and provided the opportunity to explore feelings in supervision. Finally, trainees believed their training programs did not adequately address therapist sexual attraction

    Microwave Spectra and ab Initio Studies of Ar-Propane and Ne-Propane Complexes: Structure and Dynamics

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    Microwave spectra in the 7-26 MHz region have been measured for the van der Waals complexes, Ar-C H3 C H2 C H3, Ar- C13 H3 C H2 C H3, Ne20 -C H3 C H2 C H3, and Ne22 -C H3 C H2 C H3. Both a - and c -type transitions are observed for the Ar-propane complex. The c -type transitions are much stronger indicating that the small dipole moment of the propane (0.0848 D) is aligned perpendicular to the van der Waals bond axis. While the 42 transition lines observed for the primary argon complex are well fitted to a semirigid rotor Hamiltonian, the neon complexes exhibit splittings in the rotational transitions which we attribute to an internal rotation of the propane around its a inertial axis. Only c -type transitions are observed for both neon complexes, and these are found to occur between the tunneling states, indicating that internal motion involves an inversion of the dipole moment of the propane. The difference in energy between the two tunneling states within the ground vibrational state is 48.52 MHz for Ne20 -C H3 C H2 C H3 and 42.09 MHz for Ne22 -C H3 C H2 C H3. The Kraitchman substitution coordinates of the complexes show that the rare gas is oriented above the plane of the propane carbons, but shifted away from the methylene carbon, more so in Ne propane than in Ar propane. The distance between the rare gas atom and the center of mass of the propane, Rcm, is 3.823 Ã… for Ar-propane and 3.696 Ã… for Ne-propane. Ab initio calculations are done to map out segments of the intermolecular potential. The global minimum has the rare gas almost directly above the center of mass of the propane, and there are three local minima with the rare gas in the plane of the carbon atoms. Barriers between the minima are also calculated and support the experimental results which suggest that the tunneling path involves a rotation of the propane subunit. The path with the lowest effective barrier is through a C2v symmetric configuration in which the methyl groups are oriented toward the rare gas. Calculating the potential curve for this one-dimensional model and then calculating the energy levels for this potential roughly reproduces the spectral splittings in Ne-propane and explains the lack of splittings in Ar-propane

    “It Hurts a Latina When They Tell Us Anything About Our Children”: Implications of Mexican-Origin Mothers' Maternal Identities, Aspirations, and Attitudes About Cultural Transmission for Childhood Obesity Prevention

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    Background: This qualitative study explored values, attitudes, and beliefs held by Mexican-origin mothers of preschool-aged children to enhance understanding of cultural influences on behaviors associated with childhood obesity risk. Methods: During face-to-face interviews, 39 Mexican-origin mothers of preschool-aged children discussed their hopes for their children, their image of the perfect mother, Mexican and American foods, why they taught their children about these foods, and their opinions about television (TV) viewing language. Results: Participants wanted their children to become successful, ?good? people, which necessitated doing well in school. Mothers also wanted their children to know them, which required understanding the mothers' Mexican backgrounds. Mothers wanted their children to maintain Mexican values and identities. Some mothers viewed American culture as harmful. Many participants prepared their child for going to Mexico by exposing them to Mexican culture and foods. Some mothers fed their children American foods to prepare them for school. Perceptions of American foods generally reflected stereotypical unhealthy foods. TV helped teach children Spanish and English. Being a good mother was core to participants' identities; thus, hearing about child overweight made some mothers feel like failures. Conclusions: Health promotion programs may be more salient to mothers if they: underscore how a healthy weight can help children in school; teach mothers to prepare healthy American foods that their children will encounter in kindergarten; assist mothers in teaching their children about Mexico; and present information about childhood obesity in ways that reinforce what mothers are doing well, enhance mothers' self-efficacy, and allay feelings of failure.Peer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/140339/1/chi.2015.0011.pd

    Development of an Index of Socio-Emotional Competence for Preschool Children in the Growing Up in New Zealand Study

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    Growing international recognition of the importance of socio-emotional competence has led to calls to understand the prevalence and development of such competence in young children. However, socio-emotional competence is a multifaceted concept and hence difficult to track. The present research describes the processes we used to develop an index of socio-emotional competence in preschool children taking part in the Growing Up in New Zealand (GUiNZ) study. We draw on data collected from 6,156 children when they were 9 months, 2 years and 4.5 years of age. Twenty-six variables from seven measures were found to provide conceptual coverage of socio-emotional competence and had adequate discriminatory power and internal consistency. Our final sample consisted of 4,839 participants who had adequate data on the variables of interest. Exploratory factor analysis led to the emergence of three dimensions: easy-going, regulation, and exuberance. Multiple methods of weighting (equal, empirical, and time-based) were used to calculate the index, which resulted in eight possible index versions. The index with equally weighted variables (including observations scores) and dimension scores, and time weighted scores of socio-emotional competence at each data collection wave, was found to be the most empirically sound. Both categorical and continuous index scores were calculated to allow for variety of later analytical usage. Our findings may be of interest to policy-makers and clinicians who could use this knowledge to better understand the trajectories of development of socio-emotional competence, and factors associated with any derived patterns and change. This may also help identify children at risk of poor socio-emotional development as early as possible, which may be of interest to those looking to mitigate the risk of poor socio-emotional development

    Socio-Cultural, Organizational, and Community Level Influences on Physical Activity Levels of Latino Preschool-Age Children: A Qualitative Study

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    Objectives: As more children grow up in families with immigrant parents of Latino origin, there is a need to understand key influences on physical activity behaviors of young Latino children to prevent obesity in this high-risk group.Design: We conducted six focus groups with low-income Latina mothers (N = 33) whose preschool-aged children (2-5 years) were enrolled in the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) program in Rhode Island. Data was analyzed using content analysis to identify recurrent themes.Results: Despite understanding the importance of physical activity for overall health, physical activity was not a top priority for the Latino mothers participating in the focus groups. Mothers reported facing numerous barriers to establishing and maintaining healthful physical activity habits for their preschool-aged children and themselves, particularly financial and socio-cultural barriers. Analyses revealed that Latina mothers perceive the WIC as a program focused on the development and maintenance of healthy eating habits and nutritional status of children and not physical activity.Conclusions: Recognizing the importance of socioeconomic position and the influence of cultural factors on physical activity is essential if effective prevention and intervention programs for Latino families and their children are to be designed. Study findings emphasize the importance of the family as a central unit of change and suggest that successful interventions to promote physical activity of low-income Latino preschool children must take into account the needs and constraints of the family unit as a whole. The WIC program has the potential to be a venue for promoting awareness of and educating low-income Latino parents about the importance of helping their children develop and maintain early healthful physical activity habits. The WIC program can also play an important role in facilitating access and creating programs and services that provide increased opportunities for physical activity of young children and their families

    Whole Slide Image Analysis Quantification using Aperio Digital Imaging in a Mouse Lung Metastasis Model

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    poster abstractDigital whole slide imaging is the technique of digitizing a microscope slide at the highest resolution to produce a “digital virtual microscope slide”. This digital image can be viewed in three or four fields, from low to high power, which can be commonly used to evaluate the tissue. Many of these systems have whole slide software image analysis capability. The goal of this study was to determine if the Aperio positive pixel algorithm (image analysis) could effectively quantitate metastatic mouse lung tumors in a lung section using a H&E stain. Lung sections from a mouse lung metastasis model of 8 mice per group were evaluated: control, 50mg/kg, and 75mg/kg carboplatin. H&E and Ki67 immunostain slides were scanned using the Aperio whole slide scanning system (Scanscope CS). A single field of view from each slide representing a whole lung lobe with multiple lung metastases was selected for image analysis. The standard positive pixel algorithm was altered to read the H&E slides. Various histology slides were used to validate the altered algorithm. The immunostain (Ki67) was generated using the standard positive pixel algorithm analysis. The Aperio automated positive pixel count for a Ki67 immunostain was consistent with the H&E image analysis. The values decreased with a dose dependent treatment (control vs. 50mg/kg and 75mg/kg carboplatin) and were (H&E) 37%, 28%, and 22%, and (Ki67) 9%, 5%, and 3%. The analysis had decreasing values for both the H&E and Ki67 analysis on a dose dependent drug treatment. The metastases decreased in both treatment groups compared to controls with both the H&E and Ki67 analyses. The Aperio Image Analysis positive pixel algorithm allows large areas of the lung tissue section to be examined and not just a single 25x or 40x field like many common image analyses systems