1,276 research outputs found

    Municipal Solid Waste Flow Control in the Post-Carbone World

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    Garbage will always ultimately be the government\u27s problem. Evolving environmental standards and state and federal policies will continue to require reasoned responses from local governments and municipal solid waste flow control is a vital cog in many jurisdictions\u27 solid waste management solutions. Without flow control of some form, governments\u27 ability to plan and provide for the most environmentally sound and economically acceptable solutions will wane, leaving the public vulnerable to the vagaries of a private market that does not have a duty to protect the public health and safety. The Carbone decision has blunted one of the local governments chief weapons-legislative flow control-and it appears Congress will not supply an adequate answer for many solid waste systems. More than ever, alternatives to legislative flow control will be needed to enable municipalities to fulfill their solid waste duties, to comply with federal and state mandates, and to provide workable, environmentally-sound, long-term solid waste programs serving the interests of the public health and safety. Local governments must act soon by examining these options and deciding which will best serve the public

    High School Athletic Administration’s Policies and Rights to Sanction Student-Athlete’s Social Media Use

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    This qualitative survey investigated how much authority high school athletic directors have when monitoring student-athletes’ social media accounts while also determining whether athletic directors believe it is necessary to implement social media policies for student-athletes. An in-depth literature review supports evidence of the legality of athletic code of conducts based on previous court cases and a theoretical framework. Twenty-five athletic directors from the state of North Dakota participated in the study via an online survey. The study obtained basic demographics and determined how the administrators have implemented current social media policies, along with understand their views on policies for student-athletes’ social media accounts. Analysis of the study showed that student-athletes’ social media usage may be regulated by school administrators if the post contains speech that causes or creates a reasonably, foreseeable, and substantial disruption to the school environment. The researcher determined that policies include the sanctions that are implemented when a student-athlete violates the athletic code of conduct. However, there was a decisive number of athletic directors who do not see the necessity of implementing a social media code of conducts as they believe the challenges of creating guidelines outweigh the benefits of providing policies. The researcher determined that in order for athletic directors to feel inclined to create a code of conduct one must create explicit details pertaining to the legality of social media policies. While social media policies may not be the preferred method for athletic directors it provides efficient and legal guidance on how to handle any problems that may arise

    Comparison of Age and Growth Parameters of Invasive Red Lionfish (\u3ci\u3ePterois volitans\u3c/i\u3e) Across the Northern Gulf of Mexico

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    Invasive red lionfish (Pterois volitans) have spread rapidly throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) partly because of their high growth rate. Red lionfish were collected from the northern GOM across 3 ecological regions from 2012 through 2015. For male and female red lionfish, relationships between weight and total length (TL) were differnt by ecological region. Males acheives a greater mean weight adjusted for TL (333.6 g [standar errer (SE) 3.6]) than females (195.1 g [SE 3.7]). A subsample of 1607 pairs of sagittal otoliths (from 744 males, 716 females, and 147 fish of unknown or undetermined sex) was used to assign ages. Ages ranged from 0.0 to 4.5 years (mean: 1.4 years), and these estimated ages and the dates of capture for specimens confirm the presence of red lionfish in the northern GOM in 2008, 2 years prior to the first detection of this species there. There were differences in age and rowth between sexes within and among ecological regions, with males achieving higher growth rates and larger asympototic lengths than females (all comparions:

    First report of Oecophora bractella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae) in North America

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    The first report of Oecophora bractella (L.) from North America is given, based on collection records from Washington and British Columbia. This species is found throughout Europe, but is generally rare to uncommon through most of its range. Larvae occur on rotting wood in association with certain fungi and are not expected to reach pest status. Adults were captured at nine locations, with the first record from Seattle, WA in 1998. This first record and some of the subsequent records are from sites immediately adjacent to or associated with international shipping routes. Other sites with O. bractella are from residential areas, two of which have established breeding populations. The introduction of this moth is surprising, particularly given the low interception rate at United States ports and its specialized feeding niche. A diagnosis and photographs of adults are provided to enable North American researchers to identify this species and to monitor its spread
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