187 research outputs found

    Optimism and the Experience of Pain:A Systematic Review

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    A growing body of literature provides evidence of the health-promoting effects of optimism, including its protective role in acute and chronic pain. Optimists are characterized by positive expectations concerning the future. These positive outcome expectancies lead to more and longer goal-directed efforts and the use of approach coping strategies. No systematic review on the effects of optimism on the experience of pain has so far been conducted. A search in the databases PubMed, Web of Science and PsycInfo, and the scanning of reference lists identified 69 eligible studies. These were categorized according to sample size, participants’ age and sex, design, optimism-pain relation as primary vs. secondary study objective, and level of study/publication quality. Overall percentages of positive, zero, and negative associations between optimism and pain as well as relative frequencies of these associations in the different categories were analyzed. About 70% of the studies showed a positive, i.e., beneficial association between optimism and at least one pain outcome. A larger percentage of beneficial associations was found in studies with experimental designs, in studies with the optimism-pain relation as primary objective, in high-quality studies/publications, and in studies including participants with a higher average age. The review suggests that optimism is associated with less acute and chronic pain, especially since a higher percentage of beneficial associations was found with high study/publication quality and with the primary focus on this relationship. For the moderating role of age, different explanations are proposed. Further research on causal relationships and on optimism-fostering clinical interventions is needed

    Potencialidade de uso de fontes alternativas de √°gua para fins n√£o pot√°veis em uma unidade residencial

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    Disserta√ß√£o (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnol√≥gico. Programa de Pos-Gradua√ß√£o em Engenharia Ambiental.O uso racional da √°gua compreende o controle de desperd√≠cios e uma re-educa√ß√£o de h√°bitos e costumes. Esta re-educa√ß√£o est√° associada ao uso de fontes alternativas como, por exemplo, os efluentes tratados gerados na pr√≥pria resid√™ncia e a capta√ß√£o de √°guas pluviais, em substitui√ß√£o a √°gua pot√°vel para fins que n√£o seja o consumo humano. O uso de √°guas de chuva tem um longo hist√≥rico no mundo inteiro sendo utilizada para irriga√ß√£o e mais recentemente, para promover descargas sanit√°rias e lavagem de roupas. Por√©m a sua capta√ß√£o esta associada a um regime de chuvas. J√° a √°gua cinza, proveniente das unidades hidro-sanit√°rias, menos a bacia sanit√°ria, √© caracterizada pelo seu regime regular de fornecimento. Dentro desta perspectiva, o objetivo deste trabalho √© avaliar a potencialidade do re√ļso de √°gua cinza misturada com √°gua de chuva em uma resid√™ncia unifamiliar. O projeto foi idealizado para uma unidade unifamiliar com 05 habitantes. A resid√™ncia de estudo localiza-se no bairro Ratones, na cidade de Florian√≥polis/SC. As √°guas cinzas s√£o compostas pelas √°guas geradas no lavat√≥rio, chuveiro e do tanque de lavar roupas. A √°gua de chuva √© proveniente de uma √°rea de superf√≠cie de capta√ß√£o de 35m2. Para a quantifica√ß√£o da √°gua cinza, foram instalados hidr√īmetros nas tubula√ß√Ķes de alimenta√ß√£o de cada unidade hidro-sanit√°ria. A chuva atmosf√©rica foi quantificada atrav√©s de um pluvi√īmetro instalado na resid√™ncia em estudo. A seq√ľ√™ncia de tratamento da √°gua cinza compreende uma caixa receptora das √°guas advindas das unidades hidr√°ulico-sanit√°rias, um filtro de pedra, caixa de passagem para desinfec√ß√£o com pastilhas de cloro e reservat√≥rio de √°gua de re√ļso que posteriormente √© misturada com a √°gua de chuva no tanque de mistura. A √°gua de chuva proveniente do telhado de cer√Ęmica segue para as calhas, as quais possuem uma grade na parte superior do tubo de queda (PVC DN 100) para reter materiais grosseiros (folhas e galhos), e na seq√ľ√™ncia vai para o reservat√≥rio de descarte da primeira √°gua. O tratamento desta √°gua coletada d√°-se atrav√©s de um filtro de areia sendo posteriormente armazenada na cisterna. A mistura das √°guas √© bombeada para um reservat√≥rio superior e ent√£o utilizada. O monitoramento quanti-qualitativo das √°guas deu-se, durante um per√≠odo de 12 meses, atrav√©s da hidrometria e de coletas pontuais seguido de an√°lises f√≠sico-qu√≠micas e bacteriol√≥gicas. A partir da medi√ß√£o do consumo de √°gua por unidade sanit√°ria, identificou-se uma demanda m√©dia de 57,7 L/dia para a bacia sanit√°ria, 91,0 L/dia para o lavat√≥rio e chuveiro, 71,8 L/dia para o tanque de lavar roupas e 51,3 L/dia para a pia de cozinha. A partir dos dados de √≠ndice pluviom√©tricos obtidos, obteve-se um valor m√©dio 143,8 L/dia. Os resultados obtidos na caracteriza√ß√£o da √°gua cinza apresentaram uma grande amplitude dos valores obtidos. Na caracteriza√ß√£o da √°gua de chuva, o par√Ęmetro E. Coli apresentou um valor m√©dio de 13,6 NMP/100 ml na √°gua de descarte e reduziu para uma concentra√ß√£o m√©dia de 4,5 NMP/100 ml p√≥s filtro de areia. Observou-se tamb√©m, que a √°gua de chuva possui uma qualidade superior √† √°gua cinza, apresentando uma potencialidade de sua utiliza√ß√£o na lavagem de roupas, pois os valores de dureza detectados conferem a essa uma caracter√≠stica de √°gua n√£o dura. A oferta das fontes alternativas de √°gua supera a demanda para o re√ļso na descarga de bacia sanit√°ria, apresentando potencialidades para o emprego em outros usos n√£o pot√°veis, tais como, a rega de jardim e lavagem de ve√≠culos. Os moradores da resid√™ncia na qual o estudo foi desenvolvido relatam uma satisfa√ß√£o com a qualidade visual da √°gua empregada no re√ļso. The effective use of water is related to its wastefulness and a change in the population habits. This change concerns the use of alternative sources of water, as well as treated effluents from traditional households and the rainwater harvesting, substituting the use of potable water for another porpoise. The use of rainwater has been popular worldwide, being used mostly in irrigation systems and, recently it as been used for toilet flushing and laundry purposes. However, its harvesting is associated with the rein precipitation. The greywater, originated from the toilets, shower and washing sink/machines is characterized by its regular supply. Taking these aspects into account, the present study aims to evaluate the reuse potential of greywater and rainwater in combination from traditional households. The project was developed in a household with 05 family members. The household is located in the Ratones neighborhood, Florian√≥polis/SC. The greywater is composed by the water that comes from the hand basin, shower and washing sink/machine. The rainwater is provenient from a harvesting surface area of 35m2. Two hydrometers were installed in the feeding pipes from each sanitary equipment to estimate the greywater amount. The atmospheric rain was quantified with a pluviometer installed in the household. The sequence of the greywater treatment is composed by a receiving box that stores the water from the sanitary equipments, one rock filter, a tank for disinfection with chlorine tabs and reservoir with reused water that is mixed with rainwater in the mixed tank. The rainwater that comes from the ceramic roof goes to the gutters with a screen that retains all the coarse material (leaves and branches) and in sequence the water goes to a discharge reservoir. The treatment of this water is made with a sand filter, which is stored in the cistern afterwards. The combination of greywater and rainwater is pumped to a superior reservoir to be used. The quantitative and qualitative parameters of these wasters were monitoring within 12 months, trough hydrometric analysis, and sampling spots followed by physic, chemical and bacteriological analysis. Trough the water consumption estimation in each sanitary equipment, it was detected an average demand of 57,7 L/day for the toilet, 91,0 L/day for the hand basin and shower, 71,8 L/day for the washing machine/sink and 51,3 L/day for the kitchen sink. Considering the pluviometric data, it was observed an average value of 143,8 L/day. The obtained results from the greywater characterization presented a high variation. The rainwater presented an average value for E. Coli of 13,6 MPN/100 ml and it was reduced to 4,5 MPN/100 ml after sand filter. It can also noticed that the rainwater has a better quality when compared with the greywater, presenting a potential use for laundry purposes, due its higher hardness values. The utilization of alternative sources of water exceeds the demand for the reuse in flushing toilets, and it can be used for non-potable activities, as well as, garden watering and car washing. The household family members in study showed a good satisfaction with the visual quality of the reused water

    Development of an Activity Patterns Scale (APS)

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    Six activity patterns were identified across various self-report measures in participants with chronic pain: Pain Avoidance, Activity Avoidance; Task Contingent Persistence; Excessive Persistence, Pain Contingent Persistence and Pacing (Kindermans et al., 2011). It was proposed that instruments assessing ‚Äúpacing‚ÄĚ should include items addressing one specific pacing behavior (breaking tasks into smaller pieces; taking frequent short rests and speeding up or slowing down) with a single goal (increasing activity level, conserve energy for valued activities and pain reduction) (Nielson et al., 2013). The aim of the present study was to develop an instrument to assess the activity patterns identified by Kindermans et al. (2011). The instrument also included three pacing scales one for each of the aforementioned goals. Methods A sample of 229 patients with fibromyalgia and 62 suffering other rheumatic diseases answered online the APS and the ‚ÄúPatterns of Activity Measure-Pain‚ÄĚ (POAM-P) (Cane et al., 2007). Three alternative factor structures were tested by confirmatory factor analyses performed via structural equation modelling. . Results The structure with the best fit had 8 factors corresponding to the hypothesized scales: Pain Avoidance (őĪ=.60), Activity Avoidance (őĪ=.60); Task Contingent Persistence (őĪ=.81); Excessive Persistence (őĪ=.84), Pain Contingent Persistence (őĪ=.70), Pacing for increasing activity (őĪ=.76), Pacing for energy conservation (őĪ=.72) and Pacing for pain reduction (őĪ=.65). The correlations with the POAM-P scales were high and in the postulated direction. Conclusions The APS showed adequate reliability and structural validity. According to these results, Avoidance, Persistence and Pacing seem to be multidimensional constructs.Universidad de M√°laga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andaluc√≠a Tech

    Quality of life and behavioral functioning in Dutch pediatric patients with hereditary spherocytosis

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    The objective of this study was to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and behavioral functioning in pediatric patients with hereditary spherocytosis (HS). A cross-sectional study was conducted in 132 Dutch children and adolescents with HS and aged 8-18 years of whom 48 underwent splenectomy prior to the study. HRQoL was assessed using the KIDSCREEN-27, and behavioral functioning was evaluated using the strength and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). Scores of pediatric patients with HS were compared to a Dutch norm population. Additionally, the effects of three factors were assessed: fatigue, self-image, and parents' perceived vulnerability (measured with the checklist individual strength, the self-perception profile for children and adolescents, and the child vulnerability scale). Both unsplenectomised and splenectomised pediatric patients reported lower HRQoL on the domain physical well-being (KIDSCREEN-27) compared to Dutch peers. For behavioral functioning, parents of both groups reported more emotional problems (SDQ) compared to the norm population. Pediatric patients with lower scores on physical well-being experienced more fatigue. The patients' perceived social acceptance and parents' perceived vulnerability appeared as determinants of emotional problems. Conclusion: Pediatric patients in the current study generally report few complaints, and the results suggest that these patients overall have a strong ability to cope with HS. Despite these few complaints, fatigue and parents' perceived vulnerability seem to be important determinants for lower HRQoL and more emotional problems. Therefore, screening on these factors could serve as an addition to the treatment of HS, to help pediatric patients who are at risk for lower HRQoL or more emotional problems

    Increasing Optimism Protects Against Pain-Induced Impairment in Task-Shifting Performance

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    Persistent pain can lead to difficulties in executive task performance. Three core executive functions that are often postulated are inhibition, updating, and shifting. Optimism, the tendency to expect that good things happen in the future, has been shown to protect against pain-induced performance deterioration in executive function updating. This study tested whether this protective effect of a temporary optimistic state by means of a writing and visualization exercise extended to executive function shifting. A 2 (optimism: optimism vs no optimism) x 2 (pain: pain vs no pain) mixed factorial design was conducted. Participants (N = 61) completed a shifting task once with and once without concurrent painful heat stimulation after an optimism or neutral manipulation. Results showed that shifting performance was impaired when experimental heat pain was applied during task execution, and that optimism counteracted pain-induced deterioration in task-shifting performance. Perspective: Experimentally-induced heat pain impairs shifting task performance and manipulated optimism or induced optimism counteracted this pain-induced performance deterioration. Identifying psychological factors that may diminish the negative effect of persistent pain on the ability to function in daily life is imperative. (C) 2016 by the American Pain Societ

    The influence of partners on successful lifestyle modification in patients with coronary artery disease

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    Background: Marital status is associated with prognosis in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the influence of partners on successful modification of lifestyle-related risk factors (LRFs) in secondary CVD prevention is unclear. Therefore, we studied the association between the presence of a partner, partner participation in lifestyle interventions and LRF modification in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: In a secondary analysis of the RESPONSE-2 trial (n = 711), which compared nurse-coordinated referral to community-based lifestyle programs (smoking cessation, weight reduction and/or physical activity) to usual care in patients with CAD, we investigated the association between the presence of a partner and the level of partner participation on improvement in >1 LRF (urinary cotinine <200 ng/l, ‚Č•5% weight reduction, ‚Č•10% increased 6-min walking distance) without deterioration in other LRFs at 12 months follow-up. Results: The proportion of patients with a partner was 80% (571/711); 19% women (108/571). In the intervention group, 48% (141/293) had a participating partner in ‚Č•1 lifestyle program. Overall, the presence of a partner was associated with patients' successful LRF modification (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40-2.51). A participating partner was associated with successful weight reduction (aRR 1.73, 95% CI 1.15-2.35). Conclusion: The presence of a partner is associated with LRF improvement in patients with CAD. Moreover, patients with partners participating in lifestyle programs are more successful in reducing weight. Involving partners of CAD patients in weight reduction interventions should be considered in routine practice. Keywords: (Mesh): Secondary prevention; Coronary artery disease; Risk reduction behaviour; Social support; Spouses
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