21 research outputs found

    Long-term moderately elevated LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure and risk of coronary heart disease

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    <div><p>Background</p><p>Harmful effects of long-term exposure to moderately elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and blood pressure on coronary heart disease (CHD) have not been rigorously examined. We estimated the risk of CHD under long-term exposure to moderately elevated LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure compared with the risk under shorter exposures to higher levels of the same risk factors.</p><p>Methods</p><p>Observational study using data from 2,714 adults in Framingham Offspring Study who were free of existing cardiovascular disease and aged <70 years at baseline (1987–1991). We used the parametric g-formula to estimate 16-year CHD risk under different levels and durations of exposure to LDL-cholesterol (low: <130 mg/dL, moderate: 130 to <160 mg/dL, high 160 to <190 mg/dL, and very high: ≥190 mg/dL) and systolic blood pressure (low: <120 mmHg, prehypertension: 120 to <140 mmHg, stage 1 hypertension: 140 to <160 mmHg, and stage 2 hypertension: ≥160 mmHg).</p><p>Results</p><p>The estimated 16-year CHD risk under exposure to low LDL was 8.2% (95% CI = 7.0–9.6). The 16-year CHD risk under exposure to moderate LDL was 8.9% (7.8–10.1) which was similar to CHD risk under 8 years of low LDL followed by 8 years of high LDL at 9.0% (7.7–10.3); and 12 years of low LDL followed by 4 years of very high LDL at 8.8% (7.6–10.1). The results for blood pressure were similar.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>Long-term exposure to moderate levels of LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure had a similar impact on CHD risk as shorter exposures to levels considered ‘high’ per clinical guidelines.</p></div

    Sixteen-year risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) under different levels and durations of exposure to LDL-cholesterol, Framingham Offspring Study (1987–1991 to 2007).

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    <p>Sixteen-year risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) under different levels and durations of exposure to LDL-cholesterol, Framingham Offspring Study (1987–1991 to 2007).</p

    Characteristics of eligible 2,714 participants in the Framingham Offspring Study.

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    <p>Values are represented in percentage unless otherwise indicated.</p

    Sixteen-year risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) under different levels and durations of exposure to systolic blood pressure (SBP), Framingham Offspring Study (1987–1991 to 2007).

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    <p>Sixteen-year risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) under different levels and durations of exposure to systolic blood pressure (SBP), Framingham Offspring Study (1987–1991 to 2007).</p

    Flowchart of participant selection.

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    <p>Flowchart of participant selection.</p

    Number of deaths and excess hazard ratio (EHR) in ‰ compared to November (95% confidence interval) in the age-spans >30 to 50, >50 to 80 and >80 years: crude models and adjusted for sex and education with p-value for type 3-test.

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    <p>Number of deaths and excess hazard ratio (EHR) in ‰ compared to November (95% confidence interval) in the age-spans >30 to 50, >50 to 80 and >80 years: crude models and adjusted for sex and education with p-value for type 3-test.</p

    Month of Birth and Mortality in Sweden: A Nation-Wide Population-Based Cohort Study

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    <div><h3>Background</h3><p>Month of birth – an indicator for a variety of prenatal and early postnatal exposures – has been associated with life expectancy in adulthood. On the northern hemisphere, people born in the autumn live longer than those born during the spring. Only one study has followed a population longitudinally and no study has investigated the relation between month of birth and mortality risk below 50 years.</p> <h3>Methods and results</h3><p>In this nation-wide Swedish study, we included 6,194,745 subjects, using data from population-based health and administrative registries. The relation between month of birth (January – December) and mortality risk was assessed by fitting Cox proportional hazard regression models using attained age as the underlying time scale. Analyses were made for ages >30, >30 to 50, >50 to 80 and >80 years. Month of birth was a significant predictor of mortality in the age-spans >30, >50 to 80, and >80 years. In models adjusted for gender and education for ages >30 and >50 to 80 years, the lowest mortality was seen for people born in November and the highest mortality in those born in the spring/summer, peaking in May for mortality >30 years (25‰ excess hazard ratio compared to November, [95% confidence interval = 16–34 ]) and in April for mortality >50 to 80 years (42‰ excess hazard ratio compared to November, [95% confidence interval = 30–55]). In the ages >80 years the pattern was similar but the differences in mortality between birth months were smaller. For mortality within the age-span >30 to 50 years, results were inconclusive.</p> <h3>Conclusion</h3><p>Month of birth is associated to risk of mortality in ages above 50 years in Sweden. Further studies should aim at clarifying the mechanisms behind this association.</p> </div

    Number of deaths and excess hazard ratio (EHR) in ‰ compared to November (95% confidence interval) in the age-span >30: crude model, adjusted for sex and education, male (adjusted for education) and female (adjusted for education) and with p-value for type 3-test.

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    <p>Number of deaths and excess hazard ratio (EHR) in ‰ compared to November (95% confidence interval) in the age-span >30: crude model, adjusted for sex and education, male (adjusted for education) and female (adjusted for education) and with p-value for type 3-test.</p

    Number of subjects and proportion of the population that died during the study time by age-span, sex and education group.

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    <p>Number of subjects and proportion of the population that died during the study time by age-span, sex and education group.</p
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