17 research outputs found

    Effect of exercise and heat-induced hypohydration on brain volume

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    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to quantify changes in brain volume following exercise/heat-induced hypohydration in man. Methods: Eight active men completed intermittent exercise in a warm environment, until 2.9 ± 0.1 % of body mass was lost. Subjects remained hypohydrated for two hours following the end of exercise. Brain volume was measured before, immediately following, and 1h and 2h after exercise using MRI (Philips 3T Achieva). Measures of subjective feelings and core body temperature were also monitored. Blood samples were drawn to determine serum electrolyte concentrations and osmolality and to allow calculation of changes in blood and plasma volumes. Results: Brain volume was not influenced by hypohydration (0.2 ± 0.4 %; ES 0.2; P = 0.310). Reductions in ventricular (4.0 ± 1.8 %; ES 4.6; P < 0.001) and CSF (3.1 ± 1.9%; ES 3.3; P = 0.003) volumes were observed following exercise. Compared with pre-exercise levels, serum osmolality was elevated throughout the 2h post-exercise period (+10 ± 2 mosmol/kg; P < 0.001). Core temperature increased from 37.1 ± 0.3oC at rest to 39.3 ± 0.5oC at the end of exercise (P = 0.001). Conclusions: These data demonstrate that brain volume remains unchanged in response to moderate hypohydration and the presence of serum hyperosmolality, suggesting that mechanisms are in place to defend brain volume

    Overmoulding of electronics for end of life recovery

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    With the increasing use of electronic control systems in automotive applications, the environments in which they are required to operate are becoming evermore demanding. For improved functionality and to reduce the number of interconnections it is desirable to place the electronic control units (ECUs) as close as possible to the sensors and actuators they interact with, and they can increasingly be found mounted on engine, transmission and chassis components. The electronics are therefore exposed to high/low temperatures, high humidity, vibration and corrosive fluids. In order to protect the electronics and maintain reliability in safety critical areas, great lengths are taken to mount the devices in ways that will prevent the ingress of moisture, cushion shocks and dissipate heat. Potting of electrical devices with thermosetting polymers has been a commonplace method to install a protective layer over the circuit assemblies, which are often mounted in separate boxes within the vehicle. However, with the drive to reduce vehicle weight and increase recyclability, there has been much interest in the use of overmoulding with thermoplastic polymers, not only to provide protection, but to enable the electronics to be mounted into a structural component of the vehicle thereby saving space and weight and eliminating a level of packaging. While this has been shown to be a practical way forward in terms of reliability, the recyclability of the thermoplastic polymer is compromised by the intermixed electronics that are hard to separate economically

    Multimodal approaches to functional neuroimaging

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    Talk from the 23 & 24 January 2012 "GlaxoSmithKline - Neurophysics Workshop on Pharmacological MRI", an activity hosted at Warwick University and coordinated with the Neurophysics Marie Curie Initial Training Network of which GSK is a participant

    Comparison of key findings from recently published hygiene intervention systematic review and handwashing study

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    <p><b>Copyright information:</b></p><p>Taken from "Are hygiene and public health interventions likely to improve outcomes for Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities? A systematic review of the literature"</p><p>http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/8/153</p><p>BMC Public Health 2008;8():153-153.</p><p>Published online 8 May 2008</p><p>PMCID:PMC2397399.</p><p></p

    Change in peak energy demand with interventions–Queensland, Townsville and Toowoomba.

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    <p>This scenario provides the outputs with the Customer-Industry Engagement options of Broader Community Education activities checked and both Education and Engagement activities for Local Community and Households checked.</p><p>Change in peak energy demand with interventions–Queensland, Townsville and Toowoomba.</p