1,011 research outputs found

    X-Ray Evolution of Active Galactic Nuclei and Hierarchical Galaxy Formation

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    We have incorporated the description of the X-ray properties of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) into a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, adopting physically motivated scaling laws for accretion triggered by galaxy encounters. Our model reproduces the level of the cosmic X-ray background at 30 keV; we predict that the largest contribution (around 2/3) comes from sources with intermediate X-ray luminosity 10^{43.5}< L_X/erg/s <10^{44.5}, with 50 % of the total specific intensity produced at z<2. The predicted number density of luminous X-ray AGNs (L_X>10^{44.5} erg/s in the 2-10 keV band) peaks at z around 2 with a decline of around 3 dex to z=0; for the low luminosity sources (10^{43}<L_X/erg/s <10^{44}) it has a broaderand less pronounced maximum around z 1.5. The comparison with the data shows a generally good agreement. The model predictions slightly exceed the observed number of low-luminosity AGNs at z around 1.5, with the discrepancy progressively extending to intermediate-luminosity objects at higher redshifts; we discuss possible origins for the mismatch. Finally, we predict the source counts and the flux distribution at different redshifts in the hard (20-100 keV) X-ray band for the sources contributing to the X- ray background.Comment: 27 pages, accepted for publication in Ap

    The BeppoSAX High Energy Large Area Survey (HELLAS) - VI. The radio properties

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    We present results of a complete radio follow-up obtained with the VLA and ATCA radio telescopes down to a 6 cm flux limit of about 0.3 mJy of all the 147 X-ray sources detected in the BeppoSAX HELLAS survey. We found 53 X-ray/radio likely associations, corresponding to about one third of the X-ray sample. Using the two point spectral index alpha_ro=0.35 we divided all the HELLAS X-ray sources in radio quiet and radio loud. We have 26 sources classified as radio-loud objects, corresponding to about 18% of the HELLAS sample. In agreement with previous results, the identified radio-loud sources are associated mainly with Type 1 AGNs with L(5-10 keV) > 10^44 erg/s, while all the identified Type 2 AGNs and Emission Line Galaxies are radio quiet objects with L(5-10 keV) < 10^44 erg/s. The analysis of the radio spectral index suggests that Type 1 AGNs have a mean radio spectral index flatter than Type 2 AGNs and Emission Line Galaxies.Comment: 12 pages, 5 figures, MNRAS, accepte

    X-ray reprocessing in Seyfert Galaxies: simultaneous XMM-Newton/BeppoSAX observations

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    We selected a sample of eight bright unobscured (at least at the iron line energy) Seyfert Galaxies observed simultaneously by XMM-Newton and BeppoSAX, taking advantage of the complementary characteristics of the two missions. The main results of our analysis can be summarized as follows: narrow neutral iron lines are confirmed to be an ubiquitous component in Seyfert spectra; none of the analyzed sources shows unambiguously a broad relativistic iron line; all the sources of our sample (with a single exception) show the presence of a Compton reflection component; emission lines from ionized iron are observed in some sources; peculiar weak features around 5-6 keV (possibly arising from rotating spots on the accretion disk) are detected in two sources. The scenario emerging from these results strongly requires some corrections for the classical model of reprocessing from the accretion disk. As for materials farther away from the Black Hole, our results represent a positive test for the Unification Model, suggesting the presence of the torus in (almost) all sources, even if unobscured.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&

    Nonthermal hard X-ray excess in the Coma cluster: resolving the discrepancy between the results of different PDS data analyses

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    The detection of a nonthermal excess in the Coma cluster spectrum by two BeppoSAX observations analyzed with the XAS package (Fusco-Femiano et al.) has been disavowed by an analysis (Rossetti & Molendi) performed with a different software package (SAXDAS) for the extraction of the spectrum. To resolve this discrepancy we reanalyze the PDS data considering the same software used by Rossetti & Molendi. A correct selection of the data and the exclusion of contaminating sources in the background determination show that also the SAXDAS analysis reports a nonthermal excess with respect to the thermal emission at about the same confidence level of that obtained with the XAS package (~4.8sigma). Besides, we report the lack of the systematic errors investigated by Rossetti & Molendi and Nevalainen et al. taking into account the whole sample of the PDS observations off the Galactic plane, as already shown in our data analysis of Abell 2256 (Fusco-Femiano, Landi & Orlandini). All this eliminates any ambiguity and confirms the presence of a hard tail in the spectrum of the Coma cluster.Comment: 12 pages, 2 figures. Accepted for publication in ApJ Letter

    A simultaneous XMM-Newton and BeppoSAX observation of the archetypal Broad Line Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548

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    We report the spectral analysis of a long XMM-Newton observation of the well-studied, moderate luminosity Broad Line Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548. The source was at an historically average brightness and we find the hard (3-10 keV) spectrum can be well fitted by a power law of photon index gamma ~ 1.75, together with reflection. The only feature in the hard X-ray spectrum is a narrow emission line near 6.4 keV, with an equivalent width of ~ 60 eV. The energy and strength of this line is consistent with fluorescence from `neutral' iron distant from the central continuum source. We find no evidence for a broad Fe K line, with an upper limit well below previous reports, suggesting the inner accretion disc is now absent or highly ionised. The addition of simultaneous BeppoSAX data allows the analysis to be extended to 200 keV, yielding important constraints on the total reflection. Extrapolation of the hard X-ray power law down to 0.3 keV shows a clear `soft excess' below ~ 0.7 keV. After due allowance for the effects of a complex warm absorber, measured with the XMM-Newton RGS, we find the soft excess is better described as a smooth upward curvature in the continuum flux below ~ 2 keV. The soft excess can be modelled either by Comptonised thermal emission or by enhanced reflection from the surface of a highly ionised disc.Comment: 9 pages, 11 figures, accepted by MNRAS; minor changes to text and figure
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