280 research outputs found

    Correlation between circuital current, Cu(II) reduction and cellular electron transfer in EAB isolated from Cu(II)-reduced biocathodes of microbial fuel cells

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    The performance of four indigenous electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia JY1, Citrobacter sp. JY3, Pseudomonas aeruginosa JY5 and Stenotrophomonas sp. JY6) was evaluated for Cu(II) reduction on the cathodes of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). These EAB were isolated from well adapted mixed cultures on the MFC cathodes operated for Cu(II) reduction. The relationship between circuital current, Cu(II) reduction rate, and cellular electron transfer processes was investigated from a mechanistic point of view using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, linear sweep voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry. JY1 and JY5 exhibited a weak correlation between circuital current and Cu(II) reduction. A much stronger correlation was observed for JY3 followed by JY6, demonstrating the relationship between circuital current and Cu(II) reduction for these species. In the presence of electron transfer inhibitors (2,4-dinitrophenol or rotenone), significant inhibition on JY6 activity and a weak effect on JY1, JY3 and JY5 was observed, confirming a strong correlation between cellular electron transfer processes and either Cu(II) reduction or circuital current. This study provides evidence of the diverse functions played by these EAB, and adds to a deeper understanding of the capabilities exerted by diverse EAB associated with Cu(II) reduction

    Electrosynthesis of acetate from inorganic carbon (HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>−</sup>) with simultaneous hydrogen production and Cd(II) removal in multifunctional microbial electrosynthesis systems (MES)

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    The simultaneous production of acetate from bicarbonate (from CO2 sequestration) and hydrogen gas, with concomitant removal of Cd(II) heavy metal in water is demonstrated in multifunctional metallurgical microbial electrosynthesis systems (MES) incorporating Cd(II) tolerant electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) (Ochrobactrum sp. X1, Pseudomonas sp. X3, Pseudomonas delhiensis X5, and Ochrobactrum anthropi X7). Strain X5 favored the production of acetate, while X7 preferred the production of hydrogen. The rate of Cd(II) removal by all EAB (1.20–1.32 mg/L/h), and the rates of acetate production by X5 (29.4 mg/L/d) and hydrogen evolution by X7 (0.0187 m3/m3/d) increased in the presence of a circuital current. The production of acetate and hydrogen was regulated by the release of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which also exhibited invariable catalytic activity toward the reduction of Cd(II) to Cd(0). The intracellular activities of glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and dehydrogenase were altered by the circuital current and Cd(II) concentration, and these regulated the products distribution. Such understanding enables the targeted manipulation of the MES operational conditions that favor the production of acetate from CO2 sequestration with simultaneous hydrogen production and removal/recovery of Cd(II) from metal-contaminated and organics-barren waters

    One-dimensional fluids with second nearest-neighbor interactions

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    As is well known, one-dimensional systems with interactions restricted to first nearest neighbors admit a full analytically exact statistical-mechanical solution. This is essentially due to the fact that the knowledge of the first nearest-neighbor probability distribution function, p1(r)p_1(r), is enough to determine the structural and thermodynamic properties of the system. On the other hand, if the interaction between second nearest-neighbor particles is turned on, the analytically exact solution is lost. Not only the knowledge of p1(r)p_1(r) is not sufficient anymore, but even its determination becomes a complex many-body problem. In this work we systematically explore different approximate solutions for one-dimensional second nearest-neighbor fluid models. We apply those approximations to the square-well and the attractive two-step pair potentials and compare them with Monte Carlo simulations, finding an excellent agreement.Comment: 26 pages, 12 figures; v2: more references adde

    Mixotrophic bacteria for environmental detoxification of contaminated waste and wastewater

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    Mixotrophic bacteria provide a desirable alternative to the use of classical heterotrophic or chemolithoautotrophic bacteria in environmental technology, particularly under limiting nutrients conditions. Their bi-modal ability of adapting to inorganic or organic carbon feed and sulfur, nitrogen, or even heavy metal stress conditions are attractive features to achieve efficient bacterial activity and favorable operation conditions for the environmental detoxification or remediation of contaminated waste and wastewater. This review provides an overview on the state of the art and summarizes the metabolic traits of the most promising and emerging non-model mixotrophic bacteria for the environmental detoxification of contaminated wastewater and waste containing excess amounts of limiting nutrients. Although mixotrophic bacteria usually function with low organic carbon sources, the unusual capabilities of mixotrophic electroactive exoelectrogens and electrotrophs in bioelectrochemical systems and in microbial electrosynthesis for accelerating simultaneous metabolism of inorganic or organic C and N, S or heavy metals are reviewed. The identification of the mixotrophic properties of electroactive bacteria and their capability to drive mono- or bidirectional electron transfer processes are highly exciting and promising aspects. These aspects provide an appealing potential for unearthing new mixotrophic exoelectrogens and electrotrophs, and thus inspire the next generation of microbial electrochemical technology and mixotrophic bacterial metabolic engineering. Key points: • Mixotrophic bacteria efficiently and simultaneously remove C and N, S or heavy metals. • Exoelectrogens and electrotrophs accelerate metabolism of C and N, S or heavy metals. • New mixotrophic exoelectrogens and electrotrophs should be discovered and exploited. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

    Depicted concerted working model of LAAO and MutT in preventing ROS-generated oxidative damage to cells.

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    <p><i>aao<sub>So</sub></i> and <i>mutT</i> constitute an operon in <i>S. oligofermentans</i> and are co-transcribed, creating the equivalent protein products of the two. The absence of LAAO, an aminoacetone oxidase, was found to cause the accumulation of aminoacetone, which can be derived from threonine by threonine dehydrogenase (Tdh). It generates superoxide anions in the presence of oxygen and transition metals. Fe<sup>2+</sup>, released from proteins containing [4Fe–4S]<sup>2+</sup> cluster by superoxide anion attack, was found to trigger the Fenton reaction to form hydroxyl radicals from H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>, which is produced in abundance from lactate and pyruvate by Lox and Pox, respectively. These hydroxyl radicals oxidize nucleic acids, like dGTP to 8-oxo-dGTP, a mutagen that can cause severe gene mutations. The coexpressed MutT hydrolyzes 8-oxo-dGTP to the harmless 8-oxo-dGMP, and so prevents cell damage. LAAO, L-amino acid oxidase; MutT, pyrophosphohydrolase; Tdh, threonine dehydrogenase; Lox, lactate oxidase; Pox, pyruvate oxidase; Mn-SOD, manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase. Thick arrows refer to the main flux of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>; broken arrows indicate the conditional pathways.</p

    Effect of aminoacetone on the growth of <i>S. oligofermentans</i> wild-type and two mutants.

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    *<p>Symbol: +, 5 mM aminoacetone added; -, no aminoacetone added; Data are shown as means±SD from three independent experiments.</p

    ESR spectra of the DMPO treated cells of <i>S. oligofermentans.</i>

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    <p>The characteristic 1∶2:2∶1 quartet of hydroxyl radical adduct of DMPO signals were shown in the DMPO-contained cell suspensions of (A) <i>Δaao<sub>So</sub>-mutT</i> mutant, (B) <i>Δaao<sub>So</sub></i> mutant, and (C) wild-type strain.</p
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