41 research outputs found

    Adsorption of hard spheres: structure and effective density according to the potential distribution theorem

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    We propose a new type of effective densities via the potential distribution theorem. These densities are for the sake of enabling the mapping of the free energy of a uniform fluid onto that of a nonuniform fluid. The potential distribution theorem gives the work required to insert a test particle into the bath molecules under the action of the external (wall) potential. This insertion work W_ins can be obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulation (e.g. from Widom's test particle technique) or from an analytical theory. The pseudo-densities are constructed thusly so that when their values are substituted into a uniform-fluid equation of state (e.g. the Carnahan-Starling equation for the hard-sphere chemical potentials), the MC nonuniform insertion work is reproduced. We characterize the pseudo-density behavior for the hard spheres/hard wall system at moderate to high densities (from \rho^*= 0.5745 to 0.9135). We adopt the MC data of Groot et al. for this purpose. The pseudo-densities show oscillatory behavior out of phase (opposite) to that of the singlet densities. We also construct a new closure-based density functional theory (the star-function based density functional theory) that can give accurate description of the MC density profiles and insertion works. A viable theory is established for several cases in hard sphere adsorption.Comment: 15 pages, 10 figure

    Thermodynamic stability of fluid-fluid phase separation in binary athermal mixtures: The role of nonadditivity

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    We study the thermodynamic stability of fluid-fluid phase separation in binary nonadditive mixtures of hard-spheres for moderate size ratios. We are interested in elucidating the role played by small amounts of nonadditivity in determining the stability of fluid-fluid phase separation with respect to the fluid-solid phase transition. The demixing curves are built in the framework of the modified-hypernetted chain and of the Rogers-Young integral equation theories through the calculation of the Gibbs free energy. We also evaluate fluid-fluid phase equilibria within a first-order thermodynamic perturbation theory applied to an effective one-component potential obtained by integrating out the degrees of freedom of the small spheres. A qualitative agreement emerges between the two different approaches. We also address the determination of the freezing line by applying the first-order thermodynamic perturbation theory to the effective interaction between large spheres. Our results suggest that for intermediate size ratios a modest amount of nonadditivity, smaller than earlier thought, can be sufficient to drive the fluid-fluid critical point into the thermodinamically stable region of the phase diagram. These findings could be significant for rare-gas mixtures in extreme pressure and temperature conditions, where nonadditivity is expected to be rather small.Comment: 17 pages, 7 figures, to appear in J. Phys. Chem.

    Equilibrium cluster phases and low-density arrested disordered states: The role of short-range attraction and long-range repulsion

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    We study a model in which particles interact with short-ranged attractive and long-ranged repulsive interactions, in an attempt to model the equilibrium cluster phase recently discovered in sterically stabilized colloidal systems in the presence of depletion interactions. At low packing fraction particles form stable equilibrium clusters which act as building blocks of a cluster fluid. We study the possibility that cluster fluids generate a low-density disordered arrested phase, a gel, via a glass transition driven by the repulsive interaction. In this model the gel formation is formally described with the same physics of the glass formation.Comment: RevTeX4, 4 pages, 4 eps figure

    Simple Fluids with Complex Phase Behavior

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    We find that a system of particles interacting through a simple isotropic potential with a softened core is able to exhibit a rich phase behavior including: a liquid-liquid phase transition in the supercooled phase, as has been suggested for water; a gas-liquid-liquid triple point; a freezing line with anomalous reentrant behavior. The essential ingredient leading to these features resides in that the potential investigated gives origin to two effective core radii.Comment: 7 pages including 3 eps figures + 1 jpeg figur
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