692 research outputs found

    In vitro activity of ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, meropenem, minocycline, tobramycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole against planktonic and sessile Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria

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    Objectives: The goal of the present study was to obtain a comprehensive overview of the bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of six commonly used antibiotics on planktonic as well as on sessile Burkholderia cepacia complex cells. Methods: The bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, meropenem, minocycline, tobramycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were determined against 38 B. cepacia complex strains. MICs and minimal biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs) were determined using a traditional broth microdilution method and a novel resazurin-based viability staining, respectively. The bactericidal effects of the investigated antibiotics (using antibiotic concentrations corresponding to 10 x MIC; except for tobramycin, for which a final concentration of 4 x MIC was tested) on stationary phase planktonic cultures and on 24-h-old biofilms were evaluated using conventional plate count methods. Results: Our results confirm the innate resistance of B. cepacia complex organisms to six first-line antibiotics used to treat infected cystic fibrosis patients. All antibiotics showed similar bacteriostatic activities against exponentially growing B. cepacia complex planktonic cells and freshly adhered sessile cells (4 h). In addition, most of the antibiotics showed similar bactericidal effects on stationary phase planktonic cultures and on young and older biofilms. Conclusions: Despite the general assumption that sessile cells show a decreased susceptibility to antibiotics, our data indicate similar bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of six selected antibiotics against planktonic and sessile B. cepacia complex bacteria

    Flight of the Falcon

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    Noncooperative Collusion and Price Wars with Individual Demand Fluctuations

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    We analyze whether noncooperative collusive equilibria are harder to sustain when individual demand levels are not fixed but are able to fluctuate. To do this, we extend a Bertrand type model of price competition to allow for fluctuating market shares when prices are equal. We find that, the larger the market share fluctuations may be, the higher the discount factor should be to sustain a collusive equilibrium in trigger strategies. The intuition behind this is fairly straightforward. When individual demand in the collusive state is suddenly low, the gains from collusion go down. Moreover, the firm with the low demand can capture a larger share of the market by deviating from the collusive strategy. The incentive to deviate therefore becomes larger when the individual market share decreases. We also look at the existence of a specific type of semi-collusive equilibrium when individual market shares are either common knowledge or private knowledge. We find that there exist equilibria in which competitive periods (price wars) occur with probability 1 and on the equilibrium path.mathematical economics;

    Intentional Price Wars on the Equilibrium Path

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    In this paper we study the effect of information on the occurrence of intentional price wars on the equilibrium path. An episode of low prices is an intentional price war if it follows a period of high prices which was ended intentionally by one of the firms in the market (the price war leader). We show that for intentional price wars to exist on the equilibrium path, two elements are necessary regarding the information on which the firms base their decisions: (1) interperiod dynamics and (2) informational asymmetries. We illustrate this by means of a repeated price-setting game in which market shares fluctuate. Firms learn about the market share realizations at the beginning of each period. We show that intentional price wars on the equilibrium path are possible when firms have private information about their market share. When market shares are public information, we either see collusive price adjustment or episodes of low prices that do not classify as an intentional price war.microeconomics ;

    Transcriptional response of Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 sessile cells to treatments with high doses of hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite

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    Background: Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria are opportunistic pathogens, which can cause severe respiratory tract infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). As treatment of infected CF patients is problematic, multiple preventive measures are taken to reduce the infection risk. Besides a stringent segregation policy to prevent patient-to-patient transmission, clinicians also advise patients to clean and disinfect their respiratory equipment on a regular basis. However, problems regarding the efficacy of several disinfection procedures for the removal and/or killing of B. cepacia complex bacteria have been reported. In order to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in the resistance of biofilm-grown Burkholderia cenocepacia cells against high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the present study focussed on the transcriptional response in sessile B. cenocepacia J2315 cells following exposure to high levels of H2O2 or NaOCl. Results: The exposure to H2O2 and NaOCl resulted in an upregulation of the transcription of 315 (4.4%) and 386 (5.4%) genes, respectively. Transcription of 185 (2.6%) and 331 (4.6%) genes was decreased in response to the respective treatments. Many of the upregulated genes in the NaOCl- and H2O2-treated biofilms are involved in oxidative stress as well as general stress response, emphasizing the importance of the efficient neutralization and scavenging of ROS. In addition, multiple upregulated genes encode proteins that are necessary to repair ROS-induced cellular damage. Unexpectedly, a prolonged treatment with H2O2 also resulted in an increased transcription of multiple phage-related genes. A closer inspection of hybridisation signals obtained with probes targeting intergenic regions led to the identification of a putative 6S RNA. Conclusion: Our results reveal that the transcription of a large fraction of B. cenocepacia J2315 genes is altered upon exposure of sessile cells to ROS. These observations have highlighted that B. cenocepacia may alter several pathways in response to exposure to ROS and they have led to the identification of many genes not previously implicated in the stress response of this pathogen
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