1,415 research outputs found

    Emergency Department Overcrowding. A Retrospective Spatial Analysis and the Geocoding of Accesses. A Pilot Study in Rome

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    The overcrowding of first aid facilities creates considerable hardship and problems which have repercussions on patients’ wellbeing, the time needed for a diagnosis, and on the quality of the assistance. The basic objective of this contribution, based on the data collected by the Hospital Policlinico Umberto I in Rome (Lazio region, Italy), is to carry out a territorial screening of the municipality using GIS applications and spatial analyses aimed at reducing—in terms of triage—code white (inappropriate) attendances, after having identified the areas of greatest provenance of improperly used emergency room access. Working in a GIS environment and using functions for geocoding, we have tested an experimental model aimed at giving a close-up geographical-sanitary look at the situation: recognizing the territorial sectors in Rome which contribute to amplifying the Policlinico Umberto I emergency room overcrowding; leading up to an improvement of the situation; promoting greater awareness and knowledge of the services available on the territory, a closer relationship between patient and regular doctor (general practitioner, GP) or Local Healthcare Unit and a more efficient functioning of the emergency room. In particular, we have elaborated a “source” map from which derive all the others and it is a dot map on which all the codes white have been geolocalized on a satellite image through geocoding. We have produced three sets made up of three digital cartographic elaborations each, constructed on the census sections, the census areas and the sub-municipal areas, according to data aggregation, for absolute and relative values, and using different templates. Finally, following the same methodology and steps, we elaborated another dot map about all the codes red to provide another kind of information and input for social utility. In the near future, this system could be tested on a platform that spatially analyzes the emergency department (ED) accesses in near-real-time in order to facilitate the identification of critical territorial issues and intervene in a shorter time to regulate the influx of patients to the ED

    Mid-Late Pleistocene Neanderthal landscapes in southern Italy: Paleoecological contributions of the avian assemblage from Grotta del Cavallo, Apulia, southern Italy

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    We present a detailed paleoecologic analysis of avian assemblages from the Mousterian layers of the Middle Paleolithic Grotta del Cavallo site in southern Italy. Findings improve knowledge of the landscape that was exploited by Neanderthals. During the MIS 7, 6 and 3, the cave was surrounded by extensive grasslands and shrublands, locally interspersed by open woodland and rocky outcrops, whereas the coastal plain (currently underwater) hosted wetlands. Water bird taxa show an increase in population size during the cool-temperate climatic interval attributed to MIS 3, possibly linked to more humid conditions or a shorter distance between the wetland settings and the cave, compared to the previous glacial phase (MIS 6). In addition, coverage-based rarefied richness suggests higher avian diversity during MIS 3, which may reflect greater landscape heterogeneity due to the presence of wetland habitats. The tentative discovery of Branta leucopsis, together with several bird species currently found at higher altitudes, reinforces geochemically-derived palaeoclimate inferences of cooler than the present conditions. These assemblages also include the first fossil occurrence of Larus genei worldwide, the first Italian occurrence of Emberiza calandra, the oldest Italian occurrence of Podiceps nigricollis, and the occurrence of the rarely reported Sylvia cf. communis. Taphonomic analyses indicate that bone modifications are mainly due to physical syn- and post-depositional processes, and that the assemblage mainly accumulated through short-range physical transport and the feeding activities of nocturnal raptors

    Impact of region-of-interest delineation methods, reconstruction algorithms, and intra- and inter-operator variability on internal dosimetry estimates using PET

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    Purpose Human dosimetry studies play a central role in radioligand development for positron emission tomography (PET). Drawing regions of interest (ROIs) on the PET images is used to measure the dose in each organ. In the study aspects related to ROI delineation methods were evaluated for two radioligands of different biodistribution (intestinal vs urinary). Procedures PET images were simulated from a human voxel-based phantom. Several ROI delineation methods were tested: antero-posterior projections (AP), 3D sub-samples of the organs (S), and a 3D volume covering the whole-organ (W). Inter- and intra-operator variability ROI drawing was evaluated by using human data. Results The effective dose estimates using S and W methods were comparable to the true values. AP methods overestimated (49 %) the dose for the radioligand with intestinal biodistribution. Moreover, the AP method showed the highest inter-operator variability: 11 ± 1 %. Conclusions The sub-sampled organ method showed the best balance between quantitative accuracy and inter- and intra-operator variability.Postprint (author's final draft

    Design of a novel THz sensor for structural health monitoring applications

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    In this paper, we propose a study on the characterization, design and simulation of a THz sensor for applications in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). The proposed sensor is assembled using two frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) based on metamaterial wire resonators. We present a theoretical model to describe its electromagnetics which is used not only to understand the physical principles underlying the functioning of the sensor but also to determine a set of optimized parameters for its operation in the THz window from 395 GHz to 455 GHz. We present our numerical simulations, involving both electromagnetic and mechanical simulation techniques, to determine the reflectance profile of the sensor as a function of applied force. In this study we considered the possibility of using two thermoplastic polymers as host materials: High-Density PolyEthylene (HDPE) and PolyTetraFluoroEthylene (PTFE). The two sensors have a good dynamic range and comparable characteristics. However, we found that with HDPE it is possible to construct a sensor with a more linear response, although not as sensitive as in the case of PTFE. With HDPE we are able to pass from a situation of full transparency to almost full opacity using only its linear operating zone.info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersio
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