66 research outputs found

    Analysis of the Einstein sample of early-type galaxies

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    The EINSTEIN galaxy catalog contains x-ray data for 148 early-type (E and SO) galaxies. A detailed analysis of the global properties of this sample are studied. By comparing the x-ray properties with other tracers of the ISM, as well as with observables related to the stellar dynamics and populations of the sample, we expect to determine more clearly the physical relationships that determine the evolution of early-type galaxies. Previous studies with smaller samples have explored the relationships between x-ray luminosity (L(sub x)) and luminosities in other bands. Using our larger sample and the statistical techniques of survival analysis, a number of these earlier analyses were repeated. For our full sample, a strong statistical correlation is found between L(sub X) and L(sub B) (the probability that the null hypothesis is upheld is P less than 10(exp -4) from a variety of rank correlation tests. Regressions with several algorithms yield consistent results

    Star forming regions in gas-rich SO galaxies

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    The first results of an H alpha imaging survey of HI rich SO galaxies, which were searched for HII regions and other sources of emission, are presented. The charge coupled device H alpha interference filter images were made of 16 galaxies. Eight of these galaxies show evidence for on-going star formation, one has nuclear emission but no HII regions, and the remaining seven have no emissions detected within well defined upper limits. With the exception of one notably peculiar galaxy in which the emission from HII regions appears pervasive, the HII regions are either organized into inner-disk rings or randomly distributed throughout the disk. A few of these galaxies are found to be clearly not SO's; or peculiar objects atypical of the SO class. Using simple models star formation rates (SFRs) and gas depletion times from the observed H alpha fluxes were estimated. In general, the derived SFRs are much lower than those found in isolated field spiral galaxies and the corresponding gas depletion time scales are also longer

    HI and FIR emission from S0 galaxies

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    A large body of work has accumulated in recent years which throws into disarray the traditional assumption that S0 systems are inert, non-starforming galaxies with uniform, old stellar populations. The copious 21-cm data have been recently reviewed and assessed by Wardle and Knapp (1986). This work showed that roughly a third of the several hundred observed S0's contain detectable amounts of neutral hydrogen (HI). More recently, Pogge and Eskridge (1987) have shown that a significant fraction of HI-rich systems also exhibit H alpha emission. Thronson et al. (1989) report detection of CO line emission from two thirds of the S0's in their sample. Both of these last papers, however, report on fairly small data sets (approx. 20 objects each). From co-added Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) data, Knapp et al. (1989) report that roughly two thirds of a sample of several hundred S0's are detected at 60 and 100 microns. Work by Bally and Thronson (1989) and Walsh et al. (1989) has shown that, while a large number of S0's follow a relation between radio continuum and far infrared radiation (FIR) emission similar to that found for spirals, significant numbers of both radio-bright, and FIR-bright S0's exist. Clearly, a large number of factors are involved in determining the state of the interstellar medium in S0 galaxies. The class is probably heterogeneous, suggesting that large data samples are required to sort out various sorts of objects. The 21 cm and FIR samples are the two largest currently available. It is therefore of interest to compare the two and see where this leads. The following results are already clear: HI and FIR flux data can be used to isolate strong candidates for systems which have gained their HI gas via accretion; a rough power-law relationship exists for galaxies which are undergoing relatively normal star-forming activity; a heterogeneous class of galaxies with strong FIR emission compared to their HI emission exists. Further work is required to determine the various physical processes responsible for this last class

    X-Ray Emission from M32: X-Ray Binaries or a micro-AGN?

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    We have analysed archival {\it ROSAT} PSPC data for M32 in order to study the x-ray emission from this nearest elliptical galaxy. We fit spectra from three long exposures with Raymond-Smith, thermal bremsstrahlung, and power-law models. All models give excellent fits. The thermal fits have kT≈\approx4 keV, the Raymond-Smith iron abundance is 0.4−0.3+0.70.4^{+0.7}_{-0.3} Solar, the power-law fit has α\alpha=1.6±\pm0.1, and all fits have NHN_H consistent with the Galactic column. The source is centered on M32 to an accuracy of 9′′'', and unresolved at 27′′'' FWHM (∼\sim90 pc). M32 is x-ray variable by a factor of 3--5 on timescales of a decade down to minutes, with evidence for a possible period of ∼\sim1.3 days. There are two plausible interpretations for these results: 1) Emission due to low-mass x-ray binaries; 2) Emission due to accretion onto a massive central black hole. Both of these possibilities are supported by arguments based on previous studies of M32 and other old stellar systems; the {\it ROSAT} PSPC data do not allow us to unambiguously choose between them. Observations with the {\it ROSAT} HRI and with {\it ASCA} are required to determine which of these two very different physical models is correct.Comment: 9 pages, 5 PostScript figures, uses AASTeX style files, Accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal Letter

    UV Observations of NGC 205

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    Low resolution IUE observations of the dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 205 show that the UV spectral energy distribution (SED) of the galaxy is relatively flat. Spectra centered on the nucleus and on a region north of the nucleus show evidence of recent bursts of star formation which contribute strongly to the UV spectral energy distribution. The UV spectra was fit with a composite spectrum based on a Miller-Scalo initial mass function, an underlying older population (modelled using the UV spectrum of 47 Tuc), and an extinction based on a SMC-like extinction cure. This fit implies that the total mass of young stars (with M equal to or greater than 1 solar mass) in the galaxy is approx. 7x10(5) solar mass, which can be compared to the total mass of globular cluster like stars in the galaxy of approx. 8x10(7) solar mass

    Analysis of a Proper-Motion Selected Sample of Stars in the Ursa Minor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

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    We have studied the stellar population and internal structure of the core of the Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy, using a sample of stars selected to be members based on their proper motions. In agreement with previous studies, we find Ursa Minor to be dominated by an old, metal-poor stellar population. A small number of stars with high membership probabilities lie redward of the red giant branch. The brightest (V <= 18) such stars are known to be Carbon stars, rather than metal-rich first-ascent giants. A number of stars with high membership probabilities lie blueward of the red giant branch, and are more luminous than the horizontal branch. We speculate that these are post-horizontal branch stars. There may also be one or two stars in the post-AGB phase. Spectroscopy of the candidate post-HB and post-AGB stars is required to determine their nature. We recover the internal substructure in Ursa Minor that has been noted by several authors in the last 15 years. Using a variety of two- and three-dimensional statistical tests, we conclude that this substructure is statistically significant at the 0.005 level. There is no evidence that the regions of density excess have stellar populations that differ from the main body of Ursa Minor. The crossing time for a typical density excess is only ~5 million years. They are therefore clearly not due to intermediate age star-forming bursts. We conclude that they are instead due to tidal interactions between the Galaxy and Ursa Minor.Comment: LaTeX with AASTeX style file, 22 pages with 7 figures. Accepted for publication in The Astronomical Journal (Dec. 2001

    The Visibility of Galactic Bars and Spiral Structure At High Redshifts

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    We investigate the visibility of galactic bars and spiral structure in the distant Universe by artificially redshifting 101 B-band CCD images of local spiral galaxies from the Ohio State University Bright Spiral Galaxy Survey. Our artificially redshifted images correspond to Hubble Space Telescope I-band observations of the local galaxy sample seen at z=0.7, with integration times matching those of both the very deep Northern Hubble Deep Field data, and the much shallower Flanking Field observations. The expected visibility of galactic bars is probed in two ways: (1) using traditional visual classification, and (2) by charting the changing shape of the galaxy distribution in "Hubble space", a quantitative two-parameter description of galactic structure that maps closely on to Hubble's original tuning fork. Both analyses suggest that over 2/3 of strongly barred luminous local spirals i.e. objects classified as SB in the Third Reference Catalog) would still be classified as strongly barred at z=0.7 in the Hubble Deep Field data. Under the same conditions, most weakly barred spirals (classified SAB in the Third Reference Catalog) would be classified as regular spirals. The corresponding visibility of spiral structure is assessed visually, by comparing luminosity classifications for the artificially redshifted sample with the corresponding luminosity classifications from the Revised Shapley Ames Catalog. We find that for exposures times similar to that of the Hubble Deep Field spiral structure should be detectable in most luminous low-inclination spiral galaxies at z=0.7 in which it is present. [ABRIDGED]Comment: Accepted for publication in The Astronomical Journa
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