13,466 research outputs found

    Women in the U.S. Military: Growing Share, Distinctive Profile

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    The women who serve in today's military differ from the men who serve in a number of ways. Compared with their male counterparts, a greater share of military women are black and a smaller share are married. Also, women veterans of the post-9/11 era are less likely than men to have served in combat and more likely to be critical of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. In other ways, however, military women are not different from military men: they are just as likely to be officers; they joined the armed services for similar reasons; and post-9/11 veterans of both sexes have experienced a similar mix of struggles and rewards upon returning to civilian life. Since 1973, when the United States military ended conscription and established an all-volunteer force, the number of women serving on active duty has risen dramatically. The share of women among the enlisted ranks has increased seven-fold, from 2% to 14%, and the share among commissioned officers has quadrupled, from 4% to 16%.Department of Defense policy prohibits the assignment of women to any "unit below brigade level whose primary mission is direct ground combat." While this policy excludes women from being assigned to infantry, special operations commandos and some other roles, female members of the armed forces may still find themselves in situations that require combat action, such as defending their units if they come under attack.2This report explores the changing role of women in the military using several data sources. Two Department of Defense publications -- Population Representation in the Military Forces, FY2010 and Demographics 2010: Profile of the Military Community -- provide the overall trends in military participation by gender, as well as demographic and occupational profiles of male and female military personnel. The report also draws on data from two surveys of military veterans: a Pew Research Center survey of a nationally representative sample of 1,853 veterans conducted July 28-Sept. 4, 2011, and the July 2010 Current Population Survey (CPS) Veterans Supplement (n=9,739 veterans)

    Turbopump thermodynamic cooling

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    System for cooling turbopumps used in cryogenic fluid storage facilities is described. Technique uses thermodynamic propellant vent to intercept pump heat at desired conditions. Cooling system uses hydrogen from outside source or residual hydrogen from cryogenic storage tank

    Italy seen through British eyes: a European middle power?

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    This article analyses the British perceptions of contemporary Italy and Italian politics. Through the use of a number of sources (parliamentary debates, governmental documents, newspaper articles and interviews) it argues that Italy is not perceived, within Great Britain, as a great power within the European system nor it is viewed as a peripheral actor. Rather, it suggests that Italy seems to have finally found in the post-Cold War scenario its proper role–a European middle power, with important responsibilities within a regional sub-system. A frequent request–and expectation–coming from British politics and society is that Italy should take on more international responsibilities, even in the sphere of defence–as the different readings of Italy's role and leadership in Afghanistan and Lebanon reveal. However, Italy's ability to play this role is believed to be hampered by several factors: its uncertain political situation, its unwillingness to engage in military operations, its reluctance to respect international commitments and its structural economic problems. As a result, further possibilities of cooperation with other international partners as well as its potential for autonomous action on the international stage are, in several cases, precluded. Moreover, if the relations between Italy and the UK are usually seen in a positive way, and Italy is viewed as a reliable partner, the nature of the cooperation between the two countries is often considered to be fragile and based on short-term common interests and strategies

    A Review of Spartina Management in Washington State, US

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    Management of non-native Spartina plants including Spartina alterniflora Lois., Spartina anglica C. Hubb and Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. in Washington State, U.S. evolved during the 1990s from small-scale field trials to a large-scale integrated pest management program. The development and implementation of the program were significantly hindered by stakeholder conflict, particularly regarding the use of herbicide in estuarine environments. In 1995, Washington State Department of Agriculture was appointed to manage these invasive species. Agency coordination and strategy reviews were undertaken. A wide range of control techniques, including physical removal, mowing and herbicide, were established, with all techniques demonstrating considerable limitations. The combination of mowing and herbicide provided the greatest efficacy but was expensive. Development of biological control options is in progress but will take years to prove effectiveness for Spartina management. Program progress based on existing mapping and efficacy data is difficult to gauge. This program demonstrates that Spartina plants are difficult and expensive to eradicate. Between 1995 and 2000, infestations increased in area by 250%, affecting more than 8,093 ha of intertidal land. During this period, approximately 15% of the infestation was treated annually. Although the program has evolved considerably, substantially increasing knowledge on the management of Spartina, infestations in Washington State continue to present a range of management challenges, including the development of a standardized and integrated mapping procedures, cost-effective control techniques and improvements to stakeholder management

    Muscle Synergies Facilitate Computational Prediction of Subject-Specific Walking Motions.

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    Researchers have explored a variety of neurorehabilitation approaches to restore normal walking function following a stroke. However, there is currently no objective means for prescribing and implementing treatments that are likely to maximize recovery of walking function for any particular patient. As a first step toward optimizing neurorehabilitation effectiveness, this study develops and evaluates a patient-specific synergy-controlled neuromusculoskeletal simulation framework that can predict walking motions for an individual post-stroke. The main question we addressed was whether driving a subject-specific neuromusculoskeletal model with muscle synergy controls (5 per leg) facilitates generation of accurate walking predictions compared to a model driven by muscle activation controls (35 per leg) or joint torque controls (5 per leg). To explore this question, we developed a subject-specific neuromusculoskeletal model of a single high-functioning hemiparetic subject using instrumented treadmill walking data collected at the subject's self-selected speed of 0.5 m/s. The model included subject-specific representations of lower-body kinematic structure, foot-ground contact behavior, electromyography-driven muscle force generation, and neural control limitations and remaining capabilities. Using direct collocation optimal control and the subject-specific model, we evaluated the ability of the three control approaches to predict the subject's walking kinematics and kinetics at two speeds (0.5 and 0.8 m/s) for which experimental data were available from the subject. We also evaluated whether synergy controls could predict a physically realistic gait period at one speed (1.1 m/s) for which no experimental data were available. All three control approaches predicted the subject's walking kinematics and kinetics (including ground reaction forces) well for the model calibration speed of 0.5 m/s. However, only activation and synergy controls could predict the subject's walking kinematics and kinetics well for the faster non-calibration speed of 0.8 m/s, with synergy controls predicting the new gait period the most accurately. When used to predict how the subject would walk at 1.1 m/s, synergy controls predicted a gait period close to that estimated from the linear relationship between gait speed and stride length. These findings suggest that our neuromusculoskeletal simulation framework may be able to bridge the gap between patient-specific muscle synergy information and resulting functional capabilities and limitations

    An animated depiction of major depression epidemiology

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Epidemiologic estimates are now available for a variety of parameters related to major depression epidemiology (incidence, prevalence, etc.). These estimates are potentially useful for policy and planning purposes, but it is first necessary that they be synthesized into a coherent picture of the epidemiology of the condition. Several attempts to do so have been made using mathematical modeling procedures. However, this information is not easy to communicate to users of epidemiological data (clinicians, administrators, policy makers).</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>In this study, up-to-date data on major depression epidemiology were integrated using a discrete event simulation model. The mathematical model was animated in Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) to create a visual, rather than mathematical, depiction of the epidemiology.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Consistent with existing literature, the model highlights potential advantages of population health strategies that emphasize access to effective long-term treatment. The paper contains a web-link to the animation.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Visual animation of epidemiological results may be an effective knowledge translation tool. In clinical practice, such animations could potentially assist with patient education and enhanced long-term compliance.</p

    Practical applications of small-angle neutron scattering.

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    Recent improvements in beam-line accessibility and technology have led to small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) becoming more frequently applied to materials problems. SANS has been used to study the assembly, dispersion, alignment and mixing of nanoscale condensed matter, as well as to characterise the internal structure of organic thin films, porous structures and inclusions within steel. Using time-resolved SANS, growth mechanisms in materials systems and soft matter phase transitions can also be explored. This review is intended for newcomers to SANS as well as experts. Therefore, the basic knowledge required for its use is first summarised. After this introduction, various examples are given of the types of soft and hard matter that have been studied by SANS. The information that can be extracted from the data is highlighted, alongside the methods used to obtain it. In addition to presenting the findings, explanations are provided on how the SANS measurements were optimised, such as the use of contrast variation to highlight specific parts of a structure. Emphasis is placed on the use of complementary techniques to improve data quality (e.g. using other scattering methods) and the accuracy of data analysis (e.g. using microscopy to separately determine shape and size). This is done with a view to providing guidance on how best to design and analyse future SANS measurements on materials not listed below
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