484 research outputs found

    Spectroscopic Observations of Hot Lines Constraining Coronal Heating in Solar Active Regions

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    EUV observations of warm coronal loops suggest that they are bundles of unresolved strands that are heated impulsively to high temperatures by nanoflares. The plasma would then have the observed properties (e.g., excess density compared to static equilibrium) when it cools into the 1-2 MK range. If this interpretation is correct, then very hot emission should be present outside of proper flares. It is predicted to be vey faint, however. A critical element for proving or refuting this hypothesis is the existence of hot, very faint plasmas which should be at amounts predicted by impulsive heating. We report on the first comprehensive spectroscopic study of hot plasmas in active regions. Data from the EIS spectrometer on Hinode were used to construct emission measure distributions in quiescent active regions in the 1-5 MK temperature range. The distributions are flat or slowly increasing up to approximately 3 MK and then fall off rapidly at higher temperatures. We show that active region models based on impulsive heating can reproduce the observed EM distributions relatively well. Our results provide strong new evidence that coronal heating is impulsive in nature.Comment: ApJ, 2009, in pres

    Hot coronal loops associated with umbral brightenings

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    We analyzed AIA/SDO high-cadence images in all bands, HMI/SDO data, soft X-ray images from SXI/GOES-15, and Halpha images from the GONG network. We detected umbral brightenings that were visible in all AIA bands as well as in Halpha. Moreover, we identified hot coronal loops that connected the brightenings with nearby regions of opposite magnetic polarity. These loops were initially visible in the 94 A band, subsequently in the 335 A band, and in one case in the 211 A band. A differential emission measure analysis revealed plasma with an average temperature of about 6.5x10^6 K. This behavior suggests cooling of impulsively heated loops.Comment: A&A, 2013, in pres

    Coronal fuzziness modelled with pulse-heated multistranded loop systems

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    Coronal active regions are observed to get fuzzier and fuzzier (i.e. more and more confused and uniform) in harder and harder energy bands or lines. We explain this evidence as due to the fine multi-temperature structure of coronal loops. To this end, we model bundles of loops made of thin strands, each heated by short and intense heat pulses. For simplicity, we assume that the heat pulses are all equal and triggered only once in each strand at a random time. The pulse intensity and cadence are selected so as to have steady active region loops (∼3\sim 3 MK), on the average. We compute the evolution of the confined heated plasma with a hydrodynamic loop model. We then compute the emission along each strand in several spectral lines, from cool (≤1\leq 1 MK), to warm (2−32-3 MK) lines, detectable with Hinode/EIS, to hot X-ray lines. The strands are then put side-by-side to construct an active region loop bundle. We find that in the warm lines (2−32-3 MK) the loop emission fills all the available image surface. Therefore the emission appears quite uniform and it is difficult to resolve the single loops, while in the cool lines the loops are considerably more contrasted and the region is less fuzzy. The main reasons for this effect are that, during their evolution, i.e. pulse heating and slow cooling, each strand spends a relatively long time at temperatures around 2−32-3 MK, and that it has a high emission measure during that phase, so the whole region appears more uniform or smudged. We make the prediction that the fuzziness should be reduced in the hot UV and X-ray lines.Comment: 27 pages, 14 figure

    Observational features of equatorial coronal hole jets

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    Collimated ejections of plasma called "coronal hole jets" are commonly observed in polar coronal holes. However, such coronal jets are not only a specific features of polar coronal holes but they can also be found in coronal holes appearing at lower heliographic latitudes. In this paper we present some observations of "equatorial coronal hole jets" made up with data provided by the STEREO/SECCHI instruments during a period comprising March 2007 and December 2007. The jet events are selected by requiring at least some visibility in both COR1 and EUVI instruments. We report 15 jet events, and we discuss their main features. For one event, the uplift velocity has been determined as about 200 km/s, while the deceleration rate appears to be about 0.11 km/s2, less than solar gravity. The average jet visibility time is about 30 minutes, consistent with jet observed in polar regions. On the basis of the present dataset, we provisionally conclude that there are not substantial physical differences between polar and equatorial coronal hole jets.Comment: 9 pages, 8 figures, 1 table, accepted for publication in Annales Geophysicae, Special Issue:'Three eyes on the Sun-multi-spacecraft studies of the corona and impacts on the heliosphere
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