54 research outputs found

    Wage determination and gender discrimination in a transition economy : the case of Romania

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    The authors analyze wage determination and gender discrimination in Romania using the 1994 Romanian Household survey. They estimate wages for men and women in urban and rural areas using a Heckman selection model. They analyze gender discrimination in offered wages, to address the methodological shortcomings found in the literature. Increasing returns to education and experience are consistently significant for both men and women in urban and rural areas. Returns to education are greater in rural than in urban areas, especially for women. Labor markets are segmented regionally, probably as a result of the country's economic history, especially the spatial allocation of resources under a centrally planned economy. Only with economic liberalization has the specialization of specific regions translated into differences in regional performance and hence local economic differences. They found discrimination against women in both urban and rural labor markets, especially at low levels of education. The observed bias against women in urban areas is comparable to that found in other Western countries--but in the region's rural settings the bias is much greater than in the West. With the adjustment to market forces, as less-skilled workers face increasing difficulties in the region, women's relative wages may be expected to decline further. Discrepancy in pay also directly affects the level of pensions, unemployment benefits, and other means-tested benefits to workers, contributing to pauperization.Economic Theory&Research,Health Monitoring&Evaluation,Labor Policies,Environmental Economics&Policies,Public Health Promotion,Poverty Assessment,Health Economics&Finance,Banks&Banking Reform,Health Monitoring&Evaluation,Environmental Economics&Policies

    The returns to participation in the non-farm sector in rural Rwanda

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    In this paper, we investigate the differences in outcomes (earnings and consumption) between individuals (households) who participate in the non-farm sector and those who do not. We use propensity score matching methods, where we create appropriate comparison groups of individuals and households. First we find that non-farm self-employed individuals in rural Rwanda have significantly higher earnings than farm workers and non-farm formal employees. Second, we show that the benefits to non-farm self-employment are much higher among the non-poor than among the poor. Third, we show that diversified households, those with a farm and a non-farm enterprise, are less likely to be poor. Finally, farm households who do not participate in the market have significantly lower consumption levels than households that do. However, the benefits to market participation appear to matter less for the poor than for the non-poor. We find little difference in expenditures between market participants and non-market participants, for comparable households in the bottom 40% of the expenditure distribution.Environmental Economics&Policies,Public Health Promotion,Health Monitoring&Evaluation,Decentralization,Housing&Human Habitats,Livestock&Animal Husbandry,Crops&Crop Management Systems,Health Monitoring&Evaluation,Environmental Economics&Policies,Housing&Human Habitats

    Robustness of subjective welfare analysis in a poor developing country - Madagascar 2001

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    The authors analyze the subjective perceptions of poverty in Madagascar in 2001 and their relationship to objective poverty indicators. They base their analysis on survey responses to a series of subjective perception questions. The authors extend the existing empirical methodology for estimating subjective poverty lines on the basis of categorical consumption adequacy questions. Based on this methodology they calculate the household-specific, subjective poverty lines and compare the poverty profiles derived from different subjective welfarequestions. The results show that the aggregate poverty measures derived from consumption adequacy questions accord quite well with the poverty measures based on objective poverty lines. The subjective welfare analysis can be used in poor developing countries for evaluating socioeconomic and distributional impacts of various policy interventions.Public Health Promotion,Health Monitoring&Evaluation,Health Economics&Finance,Environmental Economics&Policies,Poverty Reduction Strategies,Poverty Assessment,Poverty Lines,Environmental Economics&Policies,Achieving Shared Growth,Poverty Reduction Strategies

    Individual attitudes toward corruption: do social effects matter?

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    Using individual-level data for 35 countries, the authors investigate the microeconomic determinants of attitudes toward corruption. They find women, employed, less wealthy, and older individuals to be more averse to corruption. The authors also provide evidence that social effects play an important role in determining individual attitudes toward corruption, as these are robustly and significantly associated with the average level of tolerance of corruption in the region. This finding lends empirical support to theoretical models where corruption emerges in multiple equilibria and suggests that"big-push"policies might be particularly effective in combating corruption.Pharmaceuticals&Pharmacoeconomics,Environmental Economics&Policies,Poverty Monitoring&Analysis,Decentralization,Health Economics&Finance,Pharmaceuticals&Pharmacoeconomics,Governance Indicators,Environmental Economics&Policies,National Governance,Poverty Monitoring&Analysis

    How does the composition of public spending matter?

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    Public spending has effects which are complex to trace and difficult to quantify. But the composition of public expenditure has become the key instrument by which development agencies seek to promote economic development. In recent years, the development assistance to heavily indebted poor countries (HIPCs) hasbeen made conditional on increased expenditure on categories that are thought to be"pro-poor". This paper responds to the growing concern being expressed about the conceptual foundations and the empirical basis for the belief that poverty can be reduced through targeted public spending. While it is widely accepted that growth and redistribution are important sources of reduction in absolute poverty, a review of the literature confirms the lack of an appropriate theoretical framework for assessing the impact of public spending on growth as well as poverty. There is a need to combine principles of both public economics and growth theory to develop appropriate theoretical guidance for public expenditure policy. This paper identifies a number of approaches that are beginning to address this gap. Building on these approaches, it proposes a framework that has its foundation in a broadly articulated development strategy and its economic goals such as growth, equity, and poverty reduction. It recommends the use of public economics principles to clarify the roles of the private and public sectors and to recognize the complementarity of spending, taxation, and regulatory instruments available to affect public policy. With regard to the impact of any given type of public spending, policy recommendations must be tailored to countries and be based on empirical analysis that takes account of the lags and leads in their effects on equity and growth and ultimately on poverty. The paper sketches out such a framework as the first step in what will have to be a longer-term research agenda to provide theoretically and empirically robust and verifiable guidance to public spending policy.Poverty Assessment,Achieving Shared Growth,Environmental Economics&Policies,Health Economics&Finance,Governance Indicators

    Returns to education in the economic transition : a systematic assessment using comparable data

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    This paper examines the assertion that returns to schooling increase as an economy transitions to a market environment. This claim has been difficult to assess as existing empirical evidence covers only a few countries over short time periods. A number of studies find that returns to education increased from the"pre-transition"period to the"early transition"period. It is not clear what has happened to the skills premium through the late 1990s, or the period thereafter. The authors use data that are comparable across countries and over time to estimate returns to schooling in eight transition economies (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Poland, Russia, Slovak Republic, and Slovenia) from the early transition period up to 2002. In the case of Hungary, they capture the transition process more fully, beginning in the late 1980s. Compared to the existing literature, they implement a more systematic analysis and perform more comprehensive robustness checks on the estimated returns, although at best they offer only an incomplete solution to the problem of endogeneity. The authors find that the evidence of a rising trend in returns to schooling over the transition period is generally weak, except in Hungary and Russia where there have been sustained and substantial increases in returns to schooling. On average, the estimated returns in the sample are comparable to advanced economy averages. There are, however, significant differences in returns across countries and these differentials have remained roughly constant over the past 15 years. They speculate on the likely institutional and structural factors underpinning these results, including incomplete transition and significant heterogeneity and offsetting developments in returns to schooling within countries.Education For All,Primary Education,Teaching and Learning,Education Reform and Management,Access&Equity in Basic Education

    Metabolomics of the Tumor Microenvironment in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

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    Stefano Tiziani, Yunyi Kang, Ricky Harjanto, Joshua Axelrod, Giovanni Paternostro, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of AmericaCarlo Piermarocchi, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of AmericaWilliam Roberts, Rady Children‚Äôs Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, United States of AmericaStefano Tiziani, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States of AmericaThe tumor microenvironment is emerging as an important therapeutic target. Most studies, however, are focused on the protein components, and relatively little is known of how the microenvironmental metabolome might influence tumor survival. In this study, we examined the metabolic profiles of paired bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) samples from 10 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). BM and PB samples from the same patient were collected at the time of diagnosis and after 29 days of induction therapy, at which point all patients were in remission. We employed two analytical platforms, high-resolution magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, to identify and quantify 102 metabolites in the BM and PB. Standard ALL therapy, which includes l-asparaginase, completely removed circulating asparagine, but not glutamine. Statistical analyses of metabolite correlations and network reconstructions showed that the untreated BM microenvironment was characterized by a significant network-level signature: a cluster of highly correlated lipids and metabolites involved in lipid metabolism (p less than 0.006). In contrast,¬†the strongest correlations in the BM upon remission were observed among amino acid metabolites and derivatives (p less than 9.2√ó10-10). This study provides evidence that metabolic characterization of the cancer niche could generate new hypotheses for the development of cancer therapies.This work was funded by the National Science Foundation (Grant No. 0829891). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.Nutritional SciencesDell Pediatric Research InstituteEmail: [email protected] (GP), Email: [email protected] (ST

    Experimental nonlocality-based network diagnostics of mutipartite entangled states

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    Quantum networks of growing complexity play a key role as resources for quantum computation; the ability to identify the quality of their internal correlations will play a crucial role in addressing the buiding stage of such states. We introduce a novel diagnostic scheme for multipartite networks of entangled particles, aimed at assessing the quality of the gates used for the engineering of their state. Using the information gathered from a set of suitably chosen multiparticle Bell tests, we identify conditions bounding the quality of the entangled bonds among the elements of a register. We demonstrate the effectiveness, flexibility, and diagnostic power of the proposed methodology by characterizing a quantum resource engineered combining two-photon hyperentanglement and photonic-chip technology. Our approach is feasible for medium-sized networks due to the intrinsically modular nature of cluster states, and paves the way to section-by-section analysis of large photonics resources.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, RevTex4-
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