67 research outputs found

    Does fluid loading influence measurements of intestinal permeability?

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    INTRODUCTION: Urinary recovery of enterally administered probes is used as a clinical test of intestinal mucosal permeability. Recently, evidence has been provided that the recovery of some but not all sugar probes is dependent on the amount of diuresis and renal function. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of fluid loading on the urinary recovery of sugar probes in healthy volunteers. METHODS: In a cross-over study, 10 healthy volunteers ingested 100 ml of a solution containing 0.2 g of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3-OMG), 0.5 g of D-xylose, 1.0 g of L-rhamnose, and 5.0 g of lactulose on two different days. The volunteers were randomized to receive either 2 litres of Ringer acetate or no fluid during the following 3 hours. The sugar concentrations were measured in 5-hour urine samples period. RESULTS: Fluid loading increased urine production and urinary recovery of xylose. Fluid loading did not influence the urinary recovery of 3-OMG, L-rhamnose, or lactulose. Neither the lactulose/rhamnose ratio nor the 3-OMG/rhamnose ratio changed. CONCLUSION: Fluid loading increases mediated carbohydrate transport but not the lactulose/rhamnose ratio, after oral sugar administration in healthy volunteers. It remains to be determined whether sugar probes are handled differently in response to fluids in patients with organ dysfunctions

    Regular physical exercise before entering military service may protect young adult men from fatigue fractures

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    BackgroundBone stress fractures are overuse injuries commonly encountered in sports and military medicine. Some fatigue fractures lead to morbidity and loss of active, physically-demanding training days. We evaluated the incidence, anatomical location, risk factors, and preventive measures for fatigue fractures in young Finnish male conscripts.MethodsFive cohorts of 1000 men performing military service, classified according to birth year (1969, 1974, 1979, 1984, 1989), were analysed. Each conscript was followed for his full military service period (180days for conscripts with rank and file duties, 270days for those with special training, 362days for officers and highly trained conscripts). Data, including physical activity level, were collected from a standard pre-information questionnaire and from the garrisons' healthcare centre medical reports. Risk factor analysis included the conscripts' service class (A, B), length of military service, age, height, weight, body mass index, smoking, education, previous diseases, injuries, and subjective symptoms, as well as self-reports of physical activity before entering the service using a standard military questionnaire.ResultsFatigue fractures occurred in 44 (1.1%) of 4029 men, with an incidence of 1.27 (95% confidence interval: 0.92-1.70) per 1000 follow-up months, and mostly (33/44, 75%) occurred at the tibial shaft or metatarsals. Three patients experienced two simultaneous stress fractures in different bones. Most fatigue fractures occurred in the first 3months of military service. Conscripts with fatigue fractures lost a total of 1359 (range 10-77) active military training days due to exemptions from duty. Conscripts reporting regular (>2 times/week) physical activity before entering the military had significantly fewer (p=0.017) fatigue fractures. Regular physical activity before entering the service was the only strong explanatory, protective factor in the model [IRR=0.41 (95% CI: 0.20 to 0.85)]. The other measured parameters did not contribute significantly to the incidence of stress fractures.ConclusionRegular and recurrent high-intensity physical activity before entering military service seems to be an important preventive measure against developing fatigue fractures. Fatigue fractures should be considered in conscripts seeking medical advice for complaints of musculoskeletal pain, and taken into consideration in planning military and other physical training programs.Peer reviewe

    Incidence and risk factors of exercise-related knee disorders in young adult men

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    Background: Musculoskeletal disorders and injuries are common causes of morbidity and loss of active, physically demanding training days in military populations. We evaluated the incidence, diagnosis, and risk factors of knee disorders and injuries in male Finnish military conscripts. Methods: The study population comprised 5 cohorts of 1000 men performing their military service, classified according to birth year (1969, 1974, 1979, 1984, and 1989). Follow-up time for each conscript was the individual conscript's full, completed military service period. Data for each man were collected from a standard pre-information questionnaire used by defense force healthcare officials and from all original medical reports of the garrison healthcare centers. Background variables for risk factor analysis included the conscripts' service data, i.e., service class (A, B), length of military service, age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), underweight, overweight, obesity, smoking habit, education, diseases, injuries, and subjective symptoms. Results: Of the 4029 conscripts, 853 visited healthcare professionals for knee symptoms during their military service, and 103 of these had suffered a knee injury. Independent risk factors for the incidence of knee symptoms were: older age; service class A; overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)); smoking habit; comprehensive school education only; and self-reported previous symptoms of the musculoskeletal, respiratory, and gastrointestinal system. The majority of visits to garrison healthcare services due to knee symptoms occurred during the first few months of military service. Knee symptoms were negatively correlated with self-reported mental and behavioral disorders. Conclusions: The present study highlights the frequency of knee disorders and injuries in young men during physically demanding military training. One-fifth of the male conscripts visited defense force healthcare professionals due to knee symptoms during their service period. Independent risk factors for the incidence of knee symptoms during military service were age at military service; military service class A; overweight; smoking habit; comprehensive school education only; and self-reported previous symptoms of the musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, or gastrointestinal system. These risk factors should be considered when planning and implementing procedures to reduce knee disorders and injuries during compulsory military service.Peer reviewe

    Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Back Pain Among Young Male Conscripts During Compulsory Finnish Military Service

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    Introduction Back pain is a major reason for sick leaves and disability pension in primary health care. The prevalence of back pain among adolescents and young adults is believed to be increasing, and back pain during military service predicts unspecified back pain during later life. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of back pain among conscripts in compulsory Finnish military service during the period 1987-2005. Materials and Methods The Finnish Defence Forces recruit all men aged 18 years for compulsory military service, and new conscripts enter the service twice a year. Before entering the service, all conscripts must pass a medical examination and conscripts entering the service are generally healthy. Health care in Finnish military service is organized by the public Garrison Health Center, and all medical records are stored as part of the Finnish health care operation plan. For this study, we randomly selected 5,000 men from the Finnish Population Register Centre, according to their year of birth from five different age categories (1969, 1974, 1979, 1984, and 1989). Results We gathered 4,029 documents for the analysis. The incidence of back pain varied between 18% and 21% and remained unchanged during the examination period. The risk factors for back pain were smoking (risk ratio 1.35, P-valuePeer reviewe

    Magneettikuvauksen tehosteaineet

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    Teema : Magneettikuvaus. English summaryPeer reviewe

    Utilizing the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in forming a personal health index

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    We propose a new model for comprehensively monitoring the health status of individuals by calculating a personal health index. The central framework of the model is the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) developed by the World Health Organization. The model is capable of handling incomplete and heterogeneous data sets collected using different techniques. The health index was validated by comparing it to two self-assessed health measures provided by individuals undergoing rehabilitation. Results indicate that the model yields valid health index outcomes, suggesting that the proposed model is applicable in practice.Comment: 29 pages, 15 figure

    Premorbid functional status as a predictor of 1-year mortality and functional status in intensive care patients aged 80 years or older

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    We assessed the association between the premorbid functional status (PFS) and 1-year mortality and functional status of very old intensive care patients. Using a nationwide quality registry, we retrieved data on patients treated in Finnish intensive care units (ICUs) during the period May 2012aEuro'April 2013. Of 16,389 patients, 1827 (11.1%) were very old (aged 80 years or older). We defined a person with good functional status as someone independent in activities of daily living (ADL) and able to climb stairs without assistance; a person with poor functional status was defined as needing assistance for ADL or being unable to climb stairs. We adjusted for severity of illness and calculated the impact of PFS. Overall, hospital mortality was 21.3% and 1-year mortality was 38.2%. For emergency patients (73.5% of all), hospital mortality was 28% and 1-year mortality was 48%. The functional status at 1 year was comparable to the PFS in 78% of the survivors. PFS was poor for 43.3% of the patients. A poor PFS predicted an increased risk of in-hospital death, adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.50 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.10), and of 1-year mortality, OR 2.18 (1.67-2.85). PFS data significantly improved the prediction of 1-year mortality. Of very old ICU patients, 62% were alive 1 year after ICU admission and 78% of the survivors had a functional status comparable to the premorbid situation. A poor PFS doubled the odds of death within a year. Knowledge of PFS improved the prediction of 1-year mortality.Peer reviewe

    Early non-invasive cardiac output monitoring in hemodynamically unstable intensive care patients: A multi-center randomized controlled trial

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    Introduction Acute hemodynamic instability increases morbidity and mortality. We investigated whether early non-invasive cardiac output monitoring enhances hemodynamic stabilization and improves outcome. Methods A multicenter, randomized controlled trial was conducted in three European university hospital intensive care units in 2006 and 2007. A total of 388 hemodynamically unstable patients identified during their first six hours in the intensive care unit (ICU) were randomized to receive either non-invasive cardiac output monitoring for 24 hrs (minimally invasive cardiac output/MICO group; n = 201) or usual care (control group; n = 187). The main outcome measure was the proportion of patients achieving hemodynamic stability within six hours of starting the study. Results The number of hemodynamic instability criteria at baseline (MICO group mean 2.0 (SD 1.0), control group 1.8 (1.0); P = .06) and severity of illness (SAPS II score; MICO group 48 (18), control group 48 (15); P = .86)) were similar. At 6 hrs, 45 patients (22%) in the MICO group and 52 patients (28%) in the control group were hemodynamically stable (mean difference 5%; 95% confidence interval of the difference -3 to 14%; P = .24). Hemodynamic support with fluids and vasoactive drugs, and pulmonary artery catheter use (MICO group: 19%, control group: 26%; P = .11) were similar in the two groups. The median length of ICU stay was 2.0 (interquartile range 1.2 to 4.6) days in the MICO group and 2.5 (1.1 to 5.0) days in the control group (P = .38). The hospital mortality was 26% in the MICO group and 21% in the control group (P = .34). Conclusions Minimally-invasive cardiac output monitoring added to usual care does not facilitate early hemodynamic stabilization in the ICU, nor does it alter the hemodynamic support or outcome. Our results emphasize the need to evaluate technologies used to measure stroke volume and cardiac output--especially their impact on the process of care--before any large-scale outcome studies are attempted
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