14 research outputs found

    C5: Assessment of Stress level among Dental Students who have Clinical Duties: A Questionnaire Based Survey

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    Assessment of Stress level among Dental Students performing Clinical Duties: A Questionnaire Based Surve

    Recommendations for standard criteria for the positional and morphological evaluation of temporomandibular joint osseous structures using cone-beam CT: a systematic review

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    Objective: This systematic review aimed to appraise the reliability and comprehensiveness of imaging methods in studies that used three-dimensional assessment of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in order to propose a standardized imaging method. Methods: Six databases/search engines were searched up until September 2022. The outcomes of interest included measurements of the mandibular condyle, glenoid fossa, joint spaces, or the entire TMJ. Two checklists were utilized: one to assess the risk of bias, with a maximum score of 37, and the other, a pre-designed checklist consisting of 22 items to evaluate the comprehensiveness of the methods used, with a maximum score of 33. Results: Out of the 2567 records retrieved, only 14 studies, which used cone bean computed tomography (CBCT), were deemed eligible and thus included in the qualitative analysis. Three studies were deemed of low risk of bias, while the remaining studies were rated as moderate to high risk of bias, primarily due to improper reporting of inter-observer agreement, varying reliability values, and a limited number of cases included in the reliability analysis. Regarding the comprehensiveness of the methods used, only four studies achieved relatively high scores. The deficiencies observed were related to the reporting of variables such as slice thickness and voxel size, absence of or improper reporting of intra- and inter-examiner reliability analyses, and failure to assess all osseous components of the TMJ. Conclusion: CBCT-based methods used to assess the positions and morphology of TMJ bony structures appear to be imperfect and lacking in comprehensiveness. Hence, criteria for a standardized assessment method of these TMJ structures are proposed. Clinical relevance statement: Accurately, comprehensively, and reliably assessing the osseous structures of the temporomandibular joint will provide valid and valuable diagnostic features of the normal temporomandibular joint, and help establish potential associations between these osseous features and temporomandibular disorders. Registration: The protocol for this systematic review was registered at the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO, No.: CRD42020199792). Key Points: •Although many methods have been introduced to assess the osseous structure of the temporomandibular joint, they yielded inconsistent findings. •None of the published studies comprehensively assessed the temporomandibular joint. •Recommendations for a comprehensive temporomandibular joint osseous assessment method were suggested for better validity and reliability of future research

    Substantial and sustained reduction in under-5 mortality, diarrhea, and pneumonia in Oshikhandass, Pakistan : Evidence from two longitudinal cohort studies 15 years apart

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    Funding Information: Study 1 was funded through the Applied Diarrheal Disease Research Program at Harvard Institute for International Development with a grant from USAID (Project 936–5952, Cooperative Agreement # DPE-5952-A-00-5073-00), and the Aga Khan Health Service, Northern Areas and Chitral, Pakistan. Study 2 was funded by the Pakistan US S&T Cooperative Agreement between the Pakistan Higher Education Commission (HEC) (No.4–421/PAK-US/HEC/2010/955, grant to the Karakoram International University) and US National Academies of Science (Grant Number PGA-P211012 from NAS to the Fogarty International Center). The funding bodies had no role in the design of the study, data collection, analysis, interpretation, or writing of the manuscript. Publisher Copyright: © 2020 The Author(s).Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Prevalence of MRSA colonization among healthcare-workers and effectiveness of decolonization regimen in ICU of a Tertiary care Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan

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    Background: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the nasal cavity and to determine the effectiveness of decolonization regimen among health care workers working in the Intensive care unit (ICU) at a Tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out during the period of June, 2018 to August, 2018. A total of 46 healthcare workers were screened to see the prevalence of MRSA in the nasal cavity. Samples from the nasal cavity were collected using sterile swabs, and processed for bacterial cultures. The samples were inoculated on Blood agar and chocolate agar and then incubated at 37℃ for 24 hours. After the incubation period, petri plates were checked for the growth of S. aureus (MRSA). After identification of colonizers, five days decolonization regimen of nasal mupirocin ointment and Chlorhexidine based body wash was used and repeated cultures were done to check the effectiveness of this regimen. IBM SPSS version 25 was used to check the statistically significant relationship between prevalence of MRSA colonization with profession and gender.Results: Among the total 46 participants, 6 (13%) were found MRSA colonizers, 12 (26.08%) showed Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and remaining 28 (60.8%) showed no growth of S. aureus. The prevalence of MRSA colonization was found highest in nurses i.e. 66.67%, 16.67% in doctor and 16.67% were in respiratory therapists. The success rate of treatment regimen was 83.33%.Conclusion: Results of the present study showed that the prevalence of MRSA was high in our setting but effectiveness of decolonization treatment regimen is similar to the worldwide success rate.Keywords: MRSA; healthcare-workers (HCWs); Colonization; Decolonizatio

    Oral Tuberculous Ulcer - A Report of Two Cases

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    Tuberculous lesions of oral cavity had become so infrequent that it was virtually a forgotten disease entity but now due to increased prevalence of immunodefiency, incidence of tuberculous lesion has also increased. We report two cases, primary and secondary tuberculosis of oral mucosa presenting with history and clinical findings. We emphasize on early detection of and treatment of the same

    RHINOSCLEROMA - A Case Report

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    Rhinoscleroma is a rare chronic granulomatous infection predominately affecting the sipper respiratory tract caused by Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis, a gram negative aerobic coccobacillus. This disease is endemic to Africa, central and South America, South central and Eastern Europe, Middle East and China. We report a case of rhinoscleroma highlighting clinical feature, investigations and its treatment

    Essential and selective role of SNX12 in transport of endocytic and retrograde cargo

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    The endosomal protein-sorting machineries play vital roles in diverse physiologically important cellular processes. Much of the core membrane-sorting apparatus is conserved in evolution, such as retromer, which is involved in the recycling of a diverse set of cargoes via the retrograde trafficking route. Here, in an RNAi-based loss-of-function study, we identified that suppression of SNX12 leads to a severe blockage in CIM6PR (also known as IGF2R) transport and alters the morphology of the endocytic compartments. We demonstrate that SNX12 is involved in the early phase of CIM6PR transport, and mediates receptor recycling upstream of the other well-established SNX components of retromer. Ultra-structural analysis revealed that SNX12 resides on tubulo-vesicular structures, despite it lacking a BAR domain. Furthermore, we illustrate that SNX12 plays a key role in intraluminal vesicle formation and in the maturation of a subpopulation of early endosomes into late endosomes, thereby regulating selective endocytic transport of cargo for degradation. This study therefore provides evidence for the existence of early endosomal subpopulations that have differential roles in the sorting of the cargoes along endocytic degradative pathways

    EhC2B, a C2 domain-containing protein, promotes erythrophagocytosis in Entamoeba histolytica via actin nucleation

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    Remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton in response to external stimuli is obligatory for many cellular processes in the amoebic cell. A rapid and local rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton is required for the development of the cellular protrusions during phagocytosis, trogocytosis, migration, and invasion. Here, we demonstrated that EhC2B, a C2 domain-containing protein, is an actin modulator. EhC2B was first identified as an effector of EhRab21 from E. histolytica. In vitro interaction studies including GST pull-down, fluorescence-based assay and ITC also corroborated with our observation. In the amoebic trophozoites, EhC2B accumulates at the pseudopods and the tips of phagocytic cups. FRAP based studies confirmed the recruitment and dynamics of EhC2B at the phagocytic cup. Moreover, we have shown the role of EhC2B in erythrophagocytosis. It is well known that calcium-dependent signal transduction is essential for the cytoskeletal dynamics during phagocytosis in the amoebic parasite. Using liposome pelleting assay, we demonstrated that EhC2B preferentially binds to the phosphatidylserine in the presence of calcium. The EhC2B mutants defective in calcium or lipid-binding failed to localise beneath the plasma membrane. The cells overexpressing these mutants have also shown a significant reduction in erythrophagocytosis. The role of EhC2B in erythrophagocytosis and pseudopod formation was also validated by siRNA-based gene knockdown approach. Finally, with the help of in vitro nucleation assay using fluorescence spectroscopy and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we have established that EhC2B is an actin nucleator. Collectively, based on the results from the study, we propose that EhC2B acts like a molecular bridge which promotes membrane deformation via its actin nucleation activity during the progression of the phagocytic cup in a calcium-dependent manner

    Efficacy of lycopene for management of oral potentially malignant disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate the available evidence on the efficacy of lycopene in the management of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs). Study DesignPubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and ProQuest databases were searched up to April 20, 2022. All clinical trials that assessed the efficacy of lycopene (I) on the signs/symptoms (O) of patients with OPMDs (P) in comparison to either active control or placebo (C) were included. Meta-analysis was conducted using the RevMan software (Cochrane Collaboration, London, UK). ResultsA total of 27 clinical trials (20 on oral submucosa fibrosis [OSF], 5 on oral lichen planus [OLP], and 2 on leukoplakia) were included. Overall, lycopene was efficacious in reducing signs and symptoms of OSF, OLP, and leukoplakia. The pooled data revealed comparable efficacy of lycopene and prednisolone in reducing pain and promoting clinical resolution of OLP. Additionally, the pooled data reported comparable efficacy of lycopene and conventional controls in improving the mouth opening and tongue protrusion in patients with OSF. ConclusionsThe results reveal promising effects of lycopene in alleviating signs and symptoms of OSF, OLP, and leukoplakia. However, owing to the observed heterogeneity and short follow-up periods, further well-designed studies with long-term therapy and follow-up are highly recommended
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