55 research outputs found

    Electromyography in Myofascial Syndrome

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    Different Types of Fibrillation Potentials in Human Needle EMG

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    Muscle Pain and Muscle Spindles

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    Muscle pain is a common symptom associated with, for example, myofascial syndrome, fibromyalgia and polymyalgia rheumatica. Many diseases of the muscle tissue are, however, completely or nearly painless such as polymyositis and inclusion body myositis. Thus, a mere inflammation cannot be the cause of muscle pain. In needle electromyography (EMG), the insertion of a needle electrode causes pain but further advancement is usually painless. However, there are small spots of muscle tissue where sudden pain is elicited with the needle. In EMG, these ‘active spots’ are observed to produce spontaneous activity in the form of end plate noise and spikes (EPSs). End plate noise is elicited at the neuromuscular junction of α, β or γ motor neuron. EPSs are action potentials of γ or β motor units. Muscle spindles are the main nociceptors in muscle tissue, both in healthy muscle and in diseases with muscle pain by inflammation of the muscle spindles. Multiple possible mechanisms of muscle pain exist. Polymyalgia rheumatica may have interstitial pain and possibly pain associated with muscle spindle capsules. Delayed onset muscle soreness may reflect both interstitial muscle pain caused by minor injuries and pain generated in mildly inflamed muscle spindles

    Myotonia lihaksen ionikanavataudeissa

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    Can very early music interventions promote at-risk infants’ development?

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    Music and musical activities are often a natural part of parenting. As accumulating evidence shows, music can promote auditory and language development in infancy and early childhood. It may even help to support auditory and language skills in infants whose development is compromised by heritable conditions, like the reading deficit dyslexia, or by environmental factors, such as premature birth. For example, infants born to dyslexic parents can have atypical brain responses to speech sounds and subsequent challenges in language development. Children born very preterm, in turn, have an increased likelihood of sensory, cognitive, and motor deficits. To ameliorate these deficits, we have developed early interventions focusing on music. Preliminary results of our ongoing longitudinal studies suggest that music making and parental singing promote infants' early language development and auditory neural processing. Together with previous findings in the field, the present studies highlight the role of active, social music making in supporting auditory and language development in at-risk children and infants. Once completed, the studies will illuminate both risk and protective factors in development and offer a comprehensive model of understanding the promises of music activities in promoting positive developmental outcomes during the first years of life.Peer reviewe

    Recording of Proprioceptive Muscle Reflexes in the Lower Extremity

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    Proprioception is the sense of body position and movement, with conscious and unconscious components, that determines and conditions the human body’s relationship with the environment. This quality of mechanosensitivity deteriorates in some pathologies and is responsible for some alterations of the locomotor system that appear in elderly persons. In those situations, the failure of proprioception reduces the quality of life of the subjects. The widespread use in developed countries of substitute joint prostheses makes it necessary to rethink the concepts of movement detection and perception. As such, this book examines the basics of proprioception as well as its function in the lower extremities, the head, in children with disabilities, and its connection with virtual reality.Peer reviewe

    Altered N100-potential associates with working memory impairment in Parkinson's disease

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    The diagnosis of cognitive impairment and dementia often occurring with Parkinson's disease (PD) is still based on the clinical picture and neuropsychological examination. Ancillary methods to detect cognitive decline in these patients are, therefore, needed. Alterations in the latencies and amplitudes of evoked response potential (ERP) components N100 and P200 have been described in PD. Due to limited number of studies their relation to cognitive deficits in PD remains obscure. The present study was designed to examine if alterations in the N100- and P200-potentials associate with neuropsychological impairment in PD. EEG-ERP was conducted to 18 PD patients and 24 healthy controls. The patients underwent a thorough neuropsychological evaluation. The controls were screened for cognitive impairment with Consortium to Establish Alzheimer's disease (CERAD)-testing and a normal result were required to be included in the study. The N100-latency was prolonged in the patients compared to the controls (p = 0.05). In the patients, the N100 latency correlated significantly with a visual working memory task (p = 0.01). Also N100 latency was prolonged and N100 amplitude habituation diminished in the patients achieving poorly in this task. We conclude that prolonged N100-latency and diminished amplitude habituation associate with visual working memory impairment in PD.Peer reviewe

    Electromyography of the muscle spindle

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    In needle electromyography, there are two spontaneous waveforms, miniature end plate potentials and "end plate spikes", appearing usually together. Miniature end plate potentials are local, non-propagating postsynaptic waves, caused by spontaneous exocytosis of acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junction. The prevailing hypothesis states that "end plate spikes" are propagated postsynaptic action potentials of muscle fibers, caused by presynaptic irritation of the motor nerve or nerve terminal. Using several small concentric needle electrodes in parallel with the muscle fibers, most "end plate spikes" are strictly local or propagating for 2-4 mm. At the end plate zone, there are miniature end plate potentials without "end plate spikes". Local "end plate spikes" are junctional potentials of intrafusal gamma neuromuscular junctions of the nuclear bag fibers, and propagated "end plate spikes" are potentials of nuclear chain muscle fibers of muscle spindles. Miniature end plate potentials without "end plate spikes" at the end plate zone derive from alpha neuromuscular junctions. These findings contrast with the prevailing hypothesis. The history of observations and different hypotheses of the origin of end plate spikes are described.Peer reviewe

    The effect of interruption to propofol sedation on auditory event-related potentials and electroencephalogram in intensive care patients

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    INTRODUCTION: In this observational pilot study we evaluated the electroencephalogram (EEG) and auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) before and after discontinuation of propofol sedation in neurologically intact intensive care patients. METHODS: Nineteen intensive care unit patients received a propofol infusion in accordance with a sedation protocol. The EEG signal and the ERPs were measured at the frontal region (Fz) and central region (Cz), both during propofol sedation and after cessation of infusion when the sedative effects had subsided. The EEG signal was subjected to power spectral estimation, and the total root mean squared power and spectral edge frequency 95% were computed. For ERPs, we used an oddball paradigm to obtain the N100 and the mismatch negativity components. RESULTS: Despite considerable individual variability, the root mean squared power at Cz and Fz (P = 0.004 and P = 0.005, respectively) and the amplitude of the N100 component in response to the standard stimulus at Fz (P = 0.022) increased significantly after interruption to sedation. The amplitude of the N100 component (at Cz and Fz) was the only parameter that differed between sedation levels during propofol sedation (deep versus moderate versus light sedation: P = 0.016 and P = 0.008 for Cz and Fz, respectively). None of the computed parameters correlated with duration of propofol infusion. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that use of ERPs, especially the N100 potential, may help to differentiate between levels of sedation. Thus, they may represent a useful complement to clinical sedation scales in the monitoring of sedation status over time in a heterogeneous group of neurologically intact intensive care patients
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