12,360 research outputs found

    Long-wavelength limit of gyrokinetics in a turbulent tokamak and its intrinsic ambipolarity

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    Recently, the electrostatic gyrokinetic Hamiltonian and change of coordinates have been computed to order 2\epsilon^2 in general magnetic geometry. Here \epsilon is the gyrokinetic expansion parameter, the gyroradius over the macroscopic scale length. Starting from these results, the long-wavelength limit of the gyrokinetic Fokker-Planck and quasineutrality equations is taken for tokamak geometry. Employing the set of equations derived in the present article, it is possible to calculate the long-wavelength components of the distribution functions and of the poloidal electric field to order 2\epsilon^2. These higher-order pieces contain both neoclassical and turbulent contributions, and constitute one of the necessary ingredients (the other is given by the short-wavelength components up to second order) that will eventually enter a complete model for the radial transport of toroidal angular momentum in a tokamak in the low flow ordering. Finally, we provide an explicit and detailed proof that the system consisting of second-order gyrokinetic Fokker-Planck and quasineutrality equations leaves the long-wavelength radial electric field undetermined; that is, the turbulent tokamak is intrinsically ambipolar.Comment: 70 pages. Typos in equations (63), (90), (91), (92) and (129) correcte

    Sources of intrinsic rotation in the low flow ordering

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    A low flow, f\delta f gyrokinetic formulation to obtain the intrinsic rotation profiles is presented. The momentum conservation equation in the low flow ordering contains new terms, neglected in previous first principles formulations, that may explain the intrinsic rotation observed in tokamaks in the absence of external sources of momentum. The intrinsic rotation profile depends on the density and temperature profiles and on the up-down asymmetry.Comment: 20 page

    Quantifying the Inefficiency of the US Social Security System

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    We quantify the inefficiency of the retirement component of the US social security system within a model where agents receive idiosyncratic labor-productivity shocks that are privately observedsocial security, efficient allocations, idiosyncratic shocks

    You never surf alone. Ubiquitous tracking of users' browsing habits

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    In the early age of the internet users enjoyed a large level of anonymity. At the time web pages were just hypertext documents; almost no personalisation of the user experience was o ered. The Web today has evolved as a world wide distributed system following specific architectural paradigms. On the web now, an enormous quantity of user generated data is shared and consumed by a network of applications and services, reasoning upon users expressed preferences and their social and physical connections. Advertising networks follow users' browsing habits while they surf the web, continuously collecting their traces and surfing patterns. We analyse how users tracking happens on the web by measuring their online footprint and estimating how quickly advertising networks are able to pro le users by their browsing habits

    Quantitative Stability and Optimality Conditions in Convex Semi-Infinite and Infinite Programming

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    This paper concerns parameterized convex infinite (or semi-infinite) inequality systems whose decision variables run over general infinite-dimensional Banach (resp. finite-dimensional) spaces and that are indexed by an arbitrary fixed set T . Parameter perturbations on the right-hand side of the inequalities are measurable and bounded, and thus the natural parameter space is l(T)l_{\infty}(T). Based on advanced variational analysis, we derive a precise formula for computing the exact Lipschitzian bound of the feasible solution map, which involves only the system data, and then show that this exact bound agrees with the coderivative norm of the aforementioned mapping. On one hand, in this way we extend to the convex setting the results of [4] developed in the linear framework under the boundedness assumption on the system coefficients. On the other hand, in the case when the decision space is reflexive, we succeed to remove this boundedness assumption in the general convex case, establishing therefore results new even for linear infinite and semi-infinite systems. The last part of the paper provides verifiable necessary optimality conditions for infinite and semi-infinite programs with convex inequality constraints and general nonsmooth and nonconvex objectives. In this way we extend the corresponding results of [5] obtained for programs with linear infinite inequality constraints

    Capturing coevolutionary signals in repeat proteins

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    The analysis of correlations of amino acid occurrences in globular proteins has led to the development of statistical tools that can identify native contacts -- portions of the chains that come to close distance in folded structural ensembles. Here we introduce a statistical coupling analysis for repeat proteins -- natural systems for which the identification of domains remains challenging. We show that the inherent translational symmetry of repeat protein sequences introduces a strong bias in the pair correlations at precisely the length scale of the repeat-unit. Equalizing for this bias reveals true co-evolutionary signals from which local native-contacts can be identified. Importantly, parameter values obtained for all other interactions are not significantly affected by the equalization. We quantify the robustness of the procedure and assign confidence levels to the interactions, identifying the minimum number of sequences needed to extract evolutionary information in several repeat protein families. The overall procedure can be used to reconstruct the interactions at long distances, identifying the characteristics of the strongest couplings in each family, and can be applied to any system that appears translationally symmetric