8,904 research outputs found

    Strong gravitational field light deflection in binary systems containing a collapsed star

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    Large light deflection angles are produced in the strong gravitational field regions around neutron stars and black holes. In the case of binary systems, part of the photons emitted from the companion star towards the collapsed object are expected to be deflected in the direction of the earth. Based on a semi-classical approach we calculate the characteristic time delays and frequency shifts of these photons as a function of the binary orbital phase. The intensity of the strongly deflected light rays is reduced by many orders of magnitude, therefore making the observations of this phenomenon extremely difficult. Relativistic binary systems containing a radio pulsar and a collapsed object are the best available candidates for the detection of the strongly deflected photons. Based on the accurate knowledge of their orbital parameters, these systems allow to predict accurately the delays of the pulses along the highly deflected path, such that the sensitivity to very weak signals can be substantially improved through coherent summation over long time intervals. We discuss in detail the cases of PSR 1913+16 and PSR 1534+12 and find that the system geometry is far more promising for the latter. The observation of the highly deflected photons can provide a test of general relativity in an unprecedented strong field regime as well as a tight constraint on the radius of the collapsed object.Comment: 7 pages, uuencoded, gzip'ed, postscript file with figures included. Accepted for pubblication in MNRA

    Constraints on the parameters of the CKM matrix by End 1998

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    A review of the current status of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix (CKM) is presented. This paper is an update of the results published in [1]. The experimental constraints imposed by the measurements of \epsilon_K, V_{ub}/V_{cb}, \Delta m_d and from the limit on \Delta m_d are used. Values of the constraints and of the parameters entering into the constraints, which restrict the range of the \bar{\rho} and \bar{\eta} parameters, include recent measurements presented at 1998 Summer Conferences and progress obtained by lattice QCD collaborations. The results are: \bar{\rho}=0.202 ^{+0.053}_{-0.059},\bar{\eta}=0.340 \pm 0.035, from which the angles \alpha, \beta and \gamma of the unitarity triangle are inferred : \sin 2 \alpha = -0.26 ^{+ 0.29}_{-0.28} ,\sin 2 \beta = 0.725 ^{+0.050}_{-0.060} ,\gamma= (59.5^{+8.5}_{-7.5})^{\circ}. Without using the constraint from \epsilon_K, \sin 2 \beta has been obtained: \sin 2 \beta = 0.72 ^{+0.07}_{-0.11}. Several external measurements or theoretical inputs have been removed, in turn, from the constraints and their respective probability density functions have been obtained. Central values and uncertainties on these quantities have been compared with actual measurements or theoretical evaluations. In this way it is possible to quantify the importance of the different measurements and the coherence of the Standard Model scenario for CP violation. An important result is that \Delta m_s is expected to be between [12.0-17.6] ps^{-1} with 68% C.L. and <20 ps^{-1} at 95% C.L. Finally relations between the CKM parameters and the quark masses are examined within a given model.Comment: 26 page

    Dynamics of intense convective rain cells

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    International audienceIntense precipitation events are often convective in nature. A deeper understanding of the properties and the dynamics of convective rain cells is, therefore, necessary both from a physical and operational point of view. The aim of this work is to study the spatial-temporal properties of convective rain cells by using a fully parameterized nonhydrostatic code (Lokal Model) in simplified model configurations. High resolution simulations are performed and it is expected that the deep moist convection and the feedback mechanisms affecting larger scales of motion can then be resolved explicitly and some of the critical constraints of parameterization schemes can be relaxed. The sensitivity of the spatio-temporal properties of simulated cells to spatial resolution and microphysics schemes is investigated and discussed through a direct comparison with typical intense convective cells measured by radars

    Parametric gravity wave detector

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    Since 1978 superconducting coupled cavities have been proposed as a sensitive detector of gravitational waves. The interaction of the gravitational wave with the cavity walls, and the esulting motion, induces the transition of some energy from an initially excited cavity mode to an empty one. The energy transfer is maximum when the frequency of the wave is equal to the frequency difference of the two cavity modes. In 1984 Reece, Reiner and Melissinos built a detector of the type proposed, and used it as a transducer of harmonic mechanical motion, achieving a sensitivity to fractional deformations of the order dx/x ~ 10^(-18). In this paper the working principles of the detector are discussed and the last experimental results summarized. New ideas for the development of a realistic gravitational waves detector are considered; the outline of a possible detector design and its expected sensitivity are also shown.Comment: 9 pages, 6 figures. Talk given at the Workshop on Electromagnetic Probes of Fundamentals Physics, Erice (Italy), October 200

    A detector of gravitational waves based on coupled microwave cavities

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    Since 1978 superconducting coupled cavities have been proposed as sensitive detector of gravitational waves. The interaction of the gravitational wave with the cavity walls, and the resulting motion, induces the transition of some electromagnetic energy from an initially excited cavity mode to an empty one. The energy transfer is maximum when the frequency of the wave is equal to the frequency difference of the two cavity modes. In this paper the basic principles of the detector are discussed. The interaction of a gravitational wave with the cavity walls is studied in the proper reference frame of the detector, and the coupling between two electromagnetic normal modes induced by the wall motion is analyzed in detail. Noise sources are also considered; in particular the noise coming from the brownian motion of the cavity walls is analyzed. Some ideas for the developement of a realistic detector of gravitational waves are discussed; the outline of a possible detector design and its expected sensitivity are also shown.Comment: 29 pages, 12 eps figures. Typeset by REVTe

    Charm and beauty reconstruction in ATLAS

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    The article describes the selection of samples of charm and beauty mesons, exclusively or semi-exclusively reconstructed on data collected in 2010. These samples have been used to calibrate the flavour tagging algorithms (through the selection of pure, or heavily enriched, b-jets samples) and for measurements of direct physical interest (b-hadrons production cross section)

    Unitarity Triangle Analysis in the Standard Model and Sensitivity to New Physics

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    By using the most recent determinations of the several theoretical and experimental input parameters, we update the Unitarity Triangle analysis in the Standard Model and discuss the sensitivity to New Physics effects. We investigate the interest of measuring with a better precision the various physical quantities entering the Unitarity Triangle analysis and study in a model independent way whether, despite the undoubted success of the CKM mechanism in the Standard Model, the Unitarity Triangle analysis still allows the presence of New Physics.Comment: Invited talk at the Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle, IPPP Durham, April 2003 (eConf C0304052). 9 pages LaTeX, 15 eps figures. Misprint corrected and references adde
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