7,184 research outputs found

    Constraints on the parameters of the CKM matrix by End 1998

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    A review of the current status of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix (CKM) is presented. This paper is an update of the results published in [1]. The experimental constraints imposed by the measurements of \epsilon_K, V_{ub}/V_{cb}, \Delta m_d and from the limit on \Delta m_d are used. Values of the constraints and of the parameters entering into the constraints, which restrict the range of the \bar{\rho} and \bar{\eta} parameters, include recent measurements presented at 1998 Summer Conferences and progress obtained by lattice QCD collaborations. The results are: \bar{\rho}=0.202 ^{+0.053}_{-0.059},\bar{\eta}=0.340 \pm 0.035, from which the angles \alpha, \beta and \gamma of the unitarity triangle are inferred : \sin 2 \alpha = -0.26 ^{+ 0.29}_{-0.28} ,\sin 2 \beta = 0.725 ^{+0.050}_{-0.060} ,\gamma= (59.5^{+8.5}_{-7.5})^{\circ}. Without using the constraint from \epsilon_K, \sin 2 \beta has been obtained: \sin 2 \beta = 0.72 ^{+0.07}_{-0.11}. Several external measurements or theoretical inputs have been removed, in turn, from the constraints and their respective probability density functions have been obtained. Central values and uncertainties on these quantities have been compared with actual measurements or theoretical evaluations. In this way it is possible to quantify the importance of the different measurements and the coherence of the Standard Model scenario for CP violation. An important result is that \Delta m_s is expected to be between [12.0-17.6] ps^{-1} with 68% C.L. and <20 ps^{-1} at 95% C.L. Finally relations between the CKM parameters and the quark masses are examined within a given model.Comment: 26 page

    Review of LEP results

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    I present a review of the results obtained during 10 years of activity in b-physics at LEP. Special emphasis is put on measurements that attained precisions not even envisaged at the beginning of the LEP programme (V/sub ub/ and Delta m/sub s/). Finally the impact of these measurements on the CKM parameters determination is presented. (16 refs)

    Multipacting

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    Multipacting (MP) is a resonant electron discharge, often plaguing radiofrequency structures, produced by the synchronization of emitted electrons with the RF fields and by the electron multiplication at the impact point with the surface of the structure. The current of re-emitted electrons grows via true secondary re-emission when the secondary yield for the primary electron impact energy is greater than one. A simple example (MP in short-gap accelerating axial-symmetric cavities) allows an analytical solution of the equation of motion, giving both the synchronization (kinematics) and multiplication (impact energy) conditions as a function of the gap voltage (or accelerating field). Starting from this example a thorough discussion of MP discharges in axial-symmetric accelerating structures will be given and some poor man's rules are given to estimate the critical cavity field levels to meet the kinematic condition for resonance. The results of these poor man's rules are compared with computer simulations of MP discharges obtained by a statistical analysis of the re-emission yield for impinging electrons versus RF field level in the accelerating structure.Comment: presented at the CERN Accelerator School CAS 2010: RF for accelerators, Ebeltoft, 8-17 June 201

    Unitarity Triangle Analysis in the Standard Model and Sensitivity to New Physics

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    By using the most recent determinations of the several theoretical and experimental input parameters, we update the Unitarity Triangle analysis in the Standard Model and discuss the sensitivity to New Physics effects. We investigate the interest of measuring with a better precision the various physical quantities entering the Unitarity Triangle analysis and study in a model independent way whether, despite the undoubted success of the CKM mechanism in the Standard Model, the Unitarity Triangle analysis still allows the presence of New Physics.Comment: Invited talk at the Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle, IPPP Durham, April 2003 (eConf C0304052). 9 pages LaTeX, 15 eps figures. Misprint corrected and references adde

    Dealing with uncertainty: turbulent parameterizations and grid-spacing effects in numerical modelling of deep moist convective processes

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    Abstract. Computer power has grown to the point that very-fine-mesh mesoscale modelling is now possible. Going down through scales is clumsily supposed to reduce uncertainty and to improve the predictive ability of the models. This work provides a contribution to understand how the uncertainty in the numerical weather prediction (NWP) of severe weather events is affected by increasing the model grid resolution and by choosing a parameterization which is able to represent turbulent processes at such finer scales. A deep moist convective scenario, a supercell, in a simplified atmospheric setting is studied by mean of high resolution numerical simulations with COSMO-Model. Different turbulent closures are used and their impacts on the space-time properties of convective fields are discussed. The convective-resolving solutions adopting Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulent closure converge with respect to the overall flow field structure when grid spacing is properly reduced. By comparing the rainfall fields produced by the model on larger scales with those at the convergence scales it's possible to size up the uncertainty introduced by the modelling itself on the predicted ground effects in such simplified scenario

    Constraints on the parameters of the VCKMV_{CKM} matrix at the end of 1997

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    A review of the current status of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix V_CKM is presented. This paper contains an update of the results published in hep-ph/9711261. Values of the parameters entering into the constraints, which restrict the range for rho and eta parameters, include recent measurements given at 1997 Summer Conferences and progress obtained by lattice QCD collaborations.Experimental constraints imposed by the measurements of epsilon_k,V_ub/V_cb, Delta m_d and by the limit on Delta m_s, are compatible and do not show evidence for New Physics inside measurements errors. Values for the angles alpha, beta and gamma of the C.K.M. triangle have been also obtained: rho=0.156 +- 0.090, eta=0.328 +- 0.054 sin 2alpha = -0.10+-0.40, sin 2beta = 0.68 +- 0.10, gamma= 64+-12 Angles theta,theta_u,theta_d and phi proposed in the parametrisation (Phys. Lett. B5353 (1995) 114.) of the C.K.M. matrix have been also determined. Finally, as there are more constraints than the fitted rho and eta parameters, several external measurements or theoretical inputs have been removed, in turn, from the constraints and their respective values have been fitted simultaneously with rho and eta.Central values and uncertainties on these quantities have been compared with actual measurements or theoretical evaluations. In this way it is possible to quantify the importance of the different measurements and the coherence of the Standard Model scenario for CP violation.Comment: 29 page

    2000 CKM-Triangle Analysis A Critical Review with Updated Experimental Inputs and Theoretical Parameters

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    Within the Standard Model, a review of the current determination of the sides and angles of the CKM unitarity triangle is presented, using experimental constraints from the measurements of |\epsilon_K|, |V_{ub}/V_{cb}|, \Delta m_d and from the limit on \Delta m_s, available in September 2000. Results from the experimental search for {B}^0_s-\bar{B}^0_s oscillations are introduced in the present analysis using the likelihood. Special attention is devoted to the determination of the theoretical uncertainties. The purpose of the analysis is to infer regions where the parameters of interest lie with given probabilities. The BaBar "95 %, C.L. scanning" method is also commented.Comment: 44 pages (revised version

    Determination of the CKM unitarity triangle parameters by end 1999

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    Within the Standard Model, a review of the current determination of the CKM unitarity triangle parameters is presented, using experimental constraints from the measurements of |epsilon_K|, V_ub/V_cb, Delta m_d and from the limit on Delta m_s, available by end 1999.Comment: Talk given by A. Stocchi at the Third International Conference on B physics and CP violation, National Taiwan Univ., Taipei, Tawain, December 3-7, 199
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