73 research outputs found

    In Situ-Generated Reactive Oxygen Species in Precharged Titania and Tungsten Trioxide Composite Catalyst Membrane Filters: Application to As(III) Oxidation in the Absence of Irradiation

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    This study demonstrates that in situ-generated reactive oxygen species (ROSs) in prephotocharged TiO₂ and WO₃ (TW) composite particle-embedded inorganic membrane filters oxidize arsenite (As(III)) into arsenate (As(V)) without any auxiliary chemical oxidants under ambient conditions in the dark. TW membrane filters have been charged with UV or simulated sunlight and subsequently transferred to a once-through flow-type system. The charged TW filters can transfer the stored electrons to dissolved O₂, producing ROSs that mediate As(III) oxidation in the dark. Dramatic inhibition of As(V) production with O₂ removal or addition of ROS quenchers indicates an ROS-mediated As(III) oxidation mechanism. Electron paramagnetic spectroscopic analysis has confirmed the formation of the HO₂•/O₂•– pair in the dark. The WO₃ fraction in the TW filter significantly influences the performance of the As(III) oxidation, while As(V) production is enhanced with increasing charging time and solution pH. The As(III) oxidation is terminated when the singly charged TW filter is fully discharged; however, recharging of TW recovers the catalytic activity for As(III) oxidation. The proposed oxidation process using charged TW membrane filters is practical and environmentally benign for the continuous treatment of As(III)-contaminated water during periods of unavailability of sunlight

    Solar-rechargeable battery based on photoelectrochemical water oxidation: Solar water battery

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    As an alternative to the photoelectrochemical water splitting for use in the fuel cells used to generate electrical power, this study set out to develop a solar energy rechargeable battery system based on photoelectrochemical water oxidation. We refer to this design as a "solar water battery". The solar water battery integrates a photoelectrochemical cell and battery into a single device. It uses a water oxidation reaction to simultaneously convert and store solar energy. With the solar water battery, light striking the photoelectrode causes the water to be photo-oxidized, thus charging the battery. During the discharge process, the solar water battery reduces oxygen to water with a high coulombic efficiency (>90%) and a high average output voltage (0.6 V). Because the reduction potential of oxygen is more positive [E0(O2/H2O) = 1.23 V vs. NHE] than common catholytes (e.g., iodide, sulfur), a high discharge voltage is produced. The solar water battery also exhibits a superior storage ability, maintaining 99% of its specific discharge capacitance after 10 h of storage, without any evidence of self-discharge. The optimization of the cell design and configuration, taking the presence of oxygen in the cell into account, was critical to achieving an efficient photocharge/discharge. © The Author(s) 2016.1

    In Situ-Generated Reactive Oxygen Species in Precharged Titania and Tungsten Trioxide Composite Catalyst Membrane Filters: Application to As(III) Oxidation in the Absence of Irradiation

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    This study demonstrates that in situ-generated reactive oxygen species (ROSs) in prephotocharged TiO₂ and WO₃ (TW) composite particle-embedded inorganic membrane filters oxidize arsenite (As(III)) into arsenate (As(V)) without any auxiliary chemical oxidants under ambient conditions in the dark. TW membrane filters have been charged with UV or simulated sunlight and subsequently transferred to a once-through flow-type system. The charged TW filters can transfer the stored electrons to dissolved O₂, producing ROSs that mediate As(III) oxidation in the dark. Dramatic inhibition of As(V) production with O₂ removal or addition of ROS quenchers indicates an ROS-mediated As(III) oxidation mechanism. Electron paramagnetic spectroscopic analysis has confirmed the formation of the HO₂•/O₂•– pair in the dark. The WO₃ fraction in the TW filter significantly influences the performance of the As(III) oxidation, while As(V) production is enhanced with increasing charging time and solution pH. The As(III) oxidation is terminated when the singly charged TW filter is fully discharged; however, recharging of TW recovers the catalytic activity for As(III) oxidation. The proposed oxidation process using charged TW membrane filters is practical and environmentally benign for the continuous treatment of As(III)-contaminated water during periods of unavailability of sunlight

    Electrocatalytic arsenite oxidation in bicarbonate solutions combined with CO₂ reduction to formate

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    Sunlight-driven water-energy nexus technologies are receiving increasing attention. This study presents a hybrid electrochemical system that catalyzes the oxidation of As(III) to As(V) with a nanoparticulate TiO₂ electrocatalyst (Ti/Ir_(1-x)Ta_xO_y/TiO₂; denoted as an n-TEC) while simultaneously converting CO₂ to formate on a Bi electrode in aqueous bicarbonate solutions at circum-neutral pH. Linear sweep voltammograms of n-TEC exhibit a specific As(III) oxidation peak (E_(p,As)), at which the Faradaic efficiency (FE) of As(V) production is ∼100%. However, the application of a potential higher than the peak (E > E_(p,As)) leads to a significant decrease in the FE due to water oxidation. Upon the addition of chloride, the oxidation of water and chloride occur competitively, producing reactive chlorine species responsible for mediating the oxidation of As(III). The Bi electrodes synthesized via the electrodeposition of Bi³⁺ typically show high FEs of >80% for formate production in bicarbonate solution purged with CO₂. The addition of chloride significantly enhances the current while maintaining the FE. The n-TEC catalyst and Bi electrodes are paired in a single device equipped with a membrane, and significant effort is made to achieve the same FEs in both the anodic and cathodic reactions as in their half-reactions. Finally, the optimized n-TEC/Bi pair is coupled with a low-cost, commercially available photovoltaic (PV). Various technical factors that drive the overall reactions with the PV are considered, and maximum FEs of ∼95% are achieved for the production of both As(V) and formate

    Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse (CQUEAN)

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    We describe the overall characteristics and the performance of an optical CCD camera system, Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse (CQUEAN), which is being used at the 2.1 m Otto Struve Telescope of the McDonald Observatory since 2010 August. CQUEAN was developed for follow-up imaging observations of red sources such as high redshift quasar candidates (z >= 5), Gamma Ray Bursts, brown dwarfs, and young stellar objects. For efficient observations of the red objects, CQUEAN has a science camera with a deep depletion CCD chip which boasts a higher quantum efficiency at 0.7 - 1.1 um than conventional CCD chips. The camera was developed in a short time scale (~ one year), and has been working reliably. By employing an auto-guiding system and a focal reducer to enhance the field of view on the classical Cassegrain focus, we achieve a stable guiding in 20 minute exposures, an imaging quality with FWHM >= 0.6" over the whole field (4.8' * 4.8'), and a limiting magnitude of z = 23.4 AB mag at 5-sigma with one hour total integration time.Comment: Accepted for publication in PASP. 26 pages including 5 tables and 24 figure

    The Seoul National University AGN Monitoring Project. II. BLR Size and Black Hole Mass of Two AGNs

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    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) show a correlation between the size of the broad line region and the monochromatic continuum luminosity at 5100 Å, allowing black hole mass estimation based on single-epoch spectra. However, the validity of the correlation is yet to be clearly tested for high-luminosity AGNs. We present the first reverberation mapping results of the Seoul National University AGN Monitoring Project (SAMP), which is designed to focus on luminous AGNs for probing the high end of the size–luminosity relation. We report time lag measurements of two AGNs, namely, 2MASS J10261389+5237510 and SDSS J161911.24+501109.2, using the light curves obtained over an ∼1000 days period with an average cadence of 10 and 20 days, respectively, for photometry and spectroscopy monitoring. Based on a cross-correlation analysis and Hβ line width measurements, we determine the Hβ lag as and days in the observed frame, and black hole mass as and , respectively, for 2MASS J1026 and SDSS J1619
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