144 research outputs found

    Non-associated flow rule with symmetric stiffness modulus for isotropic-kinematic hardening and its application for earing in circular cup drawing

    Get PDF
    AbstractUnder a standard derivation, the stiffness modulus for the non-associated flow rule is asymmetric since its plastic potential (for the plastic strain increment under the normality rule) differs from the plastic yield stress function (to define the elastic range). A new formulation was developed in this work, which leads to the symmetric stiffness modulus for the non-associated flow rule, under the framework of the combined isotropic-kinematic hardening law for generalization purposes. As for its application, the non-quadratic Yld2000-2d (Barlat et al., 2003) function (and Hill’s (1948) function for comparison) was utilized to validate the formulation for earing in circular cup drawing of AA2090-T3 and AA5042 sheets, which successfully represented 6 and 8 ears, respectively

    Alpha-tocopherol exerts protective function against the mucotoxicity of particulate matter in amphibian and human goblet cells

    Get PDF
    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air is known to increase the risk of cardiovascular disorders and mortality. The cytotoxicity of PM is mainly due to the abnormal increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which damage cellular components such as DNA, RNA, and proteins. The correlation between PM exposure and human disorders, including mortality, is based on long-term exposure. In this study we have investigated acute responses of mucus-secreting goblet cells upon exposure to PM derived from a heavy diesel engine. To this end, we employed the mucociliary epithelium of amphibian embryos and human Calu-3 cells to examine PM mucotoxicity. Our data suggest that acute exposure to PM significantly impairs mucus secretion and results in the accumulation of mucus vesicles in the cytoplasm of goblet cells. RNA-seq analysis revealed that acute responses to PM exposure significantly altered gene expression patterns; however, known regulators of mucus production and the secretory pathway were not significantly altered. Interestingly, pretreatment with alpha-tocopherol nearly recovered the hyposecretion of mucus from both amphibian and human goblet cells. We believe this study demonstrates the mucotoxicity of PM and the protective function of alpha-tocopherol on mucotoxicity caused by acute PM exposure from heavy diesel engines

    A Layered Approach for Testing Timing in the Model-Based Implementation

    Get PDF
    The model-based implementation is to derive an implementation from a model that has been shown to meet requirements. Even though this approach can be used to guarantee that an implementation satisfies functional requirements that are shown to be correct at the model level, it is still challenging to assure timing requirements at the implementation level. We propose a layered approach in testing timing requirements conformance of implemented systems developed by model-based implementation. In our approach, the abstraction boundary of the implemented system is formally defined using Parnas\u27 four-variables model. Then, the proposed approach tests timing aspects of the interaction between the auto-generated code and the target platform-dependent code based on the four-variables. This approach aims at not only detecting the timing requirement violation, but also at measuring delay-segments that contribute to the timing deviation of the implemented system w.r.t. the model. We show the case study of testing timing requirements of an infusion pump system to illustrate the applicability of the proposed framework

    Xenopus: An alternative model system for identifying muco-active agents

    Get PDF
    The airway epithelium in human plays a central role as the first line of defense against environmental contaminants. Most respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and respiratory infections, disturb normal muco-ciliary functions by stimulating the hypersecretion of mucus. Several muco-active agents have been used to treat hypersecretion symptoms in patients. Current muco-active reagents control mucus secretion by modulating either airway inflammation, cholinergic parasympathetic nerve activities or by reducing the viscosity by cleaving crosslinking in mucin and digesting DNAs in mucus. However, none of the current medication regulates mucus secretion by directly targeting airway goblet cells. The major hurdle for screening potential muco-active agents that directly affect the goblet cells, is the unavailability of in vivo model systems suitable for high-throughput screening. In this study, we developed a high-throughput in vivo model system for identifying muco-active reagents using Xenopus laevis embryos. We tested mucus secretion under various conditions and developed a screening strategy to identify potential muco-regulators. Using this novel screening technique, we identified narasin as a potential muco-regulator. Narasin treatment of developing Xenopus embryos significantly reduced mucus secretion. Furthermore, the human lung epithelial cell line, Calu-3, responded similarly to narasin treatment, validating our technique for discovering muco-active reagent

    Extracellular matrixes and neuroinflammation

    Get PDF
    The extracellular matrix is a critical component of every human tissue. ECM not only functions as a structural component but also regulates a variety of cellular processes such as cell migration, differentiation, proliferation, and cell death. In addition, current studies suggest that ECM is critical for the pathophysiology of various human diseases. ECM is composed of diverse components including several proteins and polysaccharide chains such as chondroitin sulfate, heparan sulfate, and hyaluronic acid. Each component of ECM exerts its own functions in cellular and pathophysiological processes. One of the interesting recent findings is that ECM is involved in inflammatory responses in various human tissues. In this review, we summarized the known functions of ECM in neuroinflammation after acute injury and chronic inflammatory diseases of the central nerve systems

    Analysis of Porcine Model of Fecal-Induced Peritonitis Reveals the Tropism of Blood Microbiome

    Get PDF
    Recent studies have suggested the existence of a blood microbiome in the healthy host. However, changes in the blood microbiome upon bloodstream infection are not known. Here, we analyzed the dynamics of the blood microbiome in a porcine model of polymicrobial bacteremia induced by fecal peritonitis. Surprisingly, we detected bacterial populations in the bloodstream even before the infection, and these populations were maintained over time. The native blood microbiome was notably taxonomically different from the fecal microbiome that was used to induce peritonitis, reflecting microbial tropism for the blood. Although the population composition after the infection was similar to that of the native blood microbiome, new bacterial strains entered the bloodstream upon peritonitis induction as clinical symptoms relevant to sepsis developed. This indicates that the bacteria detected in the blood before peritonitis induction were derived from the blood rather than a contamination. Comparison of the functional pathways enriched in the blood and fecal microbiomes revealed that communication and stress management pathways are essential for the survival of the blood microbiome

    GJA1 depletion causes ciliary defects by affecting Rab11 trafficking to the ciliary base

    Get PDF
    The gap junction complex functions as a transport channel across the membrane. Among gap junction subunits, gap junction protein ??1 (GJA1) is the most commonly expressed subunit. A recent study showed that GJA1 is necessary for the maintenance of motile cilia; however, the molecular mechanism and function of GJA1 in ciliogenesis remain unknown. Here, we examined the functions of GJA1 during ciliogenesis in human retinal pigment epithelium-1 and Xenopus laevis embryonic multiciliated-cells. GJA1 localizes to the motile ciliary axonemes or pericentriolar regions beneath the primary cilium. GJA1 depletion caused malformation of both the primary cilium and motile cilia. Further study revealed that GJA1 depletion affected several ciliary proteins such as BBS4, CP110, and Rab11 in the pericentriolar region and basal body. Interestingly, CP110 removal from the mother centriole was significantly reduced by GJA1 depletion. Importantly, Rab11, a key regulator during ciliogenesis, was immunoprecipitated with GJA1 and GJA1 knockdown caused the mislocalization of Rab11. These findings suggest that GJA1 regulates ciliog

    Xenopus gpx3 Mediates Posterior Development by Regulating Cell Death during Embryogenesis

    Get PDF
    Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) belongs to the glutathione peroxidase family of selenoproteins and is a key antioxidant enzyme in multicellular organisms against oxidative damage. Downregulation of GPx3 affects tumor progression and metastasis and is associated with liver and heart disease. However, the physiological significance of GPx3 in vertebrate embryonic development remains poorly understood. The current study aimed to investigate the functional roles of gpx3 during embryogenesis. To this end, we determined gpx3's spatiotemporal expression using Xenopus laevis as a model organism. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we demonstrated the zygotic nature of this gene. Interestingly, the expression of gpx3 enhanced during the tailbud stage of development, and whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH) analysis revealed gpx3 localization in prospective tail region of developing embryo. gpx3 knockdown using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) resulted in short post-anal tails, and these malformed tails were significantly rescued by glutathione peroxidase mimic ebselen. The gene expression analysis indicated that gpx3 knockdown significantly altered the expression of genes associated with Wnt, Notch, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways involved in tailbud development. Moreover, RNA sequencing identified that gpx3 plays a role in regulation of cell death in the developing embryo. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and phospho-histone 3 (PH3) staining confirmed the association of gpx3 knockdown with increased cell death and decreased cell proliferation in tail region of developing embryos, establishing the involvement of gpx3 in tailbud development by regulating the cell death. Furthermore, these findings are inter-related with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in gpx3 knockdown embryos, as measured by using a redox-sensitive fluorescent probe HyPer. Taken together, our results suggest that gpx3 plays a critical role in posterior embryonic development by regulating cell death and proliferation during vertebrate embryogenesis

    Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis Metacercariae in Freshwater Fish from Three Latitudinal Regions of the Korean Peninsula

    Get PDF
    A large-scale survey was conducted to investigate the infection status of fresh water fishes with Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae (CsMc) in 3 wide regions, which were tentatively divided by latitudinal levels of the Korean peninsula. A total of 4,071 freshwater fishes were collected from 3 regions, i.e., northern (Gangwon-do: 1,543 fish), middle (Chungcheongbuk-do and Gyeongsangbuk-do: 1,167 fish), and southern areas (Jeollanam-do, Ulsan-si, and Gyeongsangnam-do: 1,361 fish). Each fish was examined by the artificial digestion method from 2003 to 2010. In northern areas, only 11 (0.7%) fish of 2 species, Pungtungia herzi and Squalidus japonicus coreanus from Hantan-gang, Cheolwon-gun, Gangwon-do were infected with av. 2.6 CsMc. In middle areas, 149 (12.8%) fish were infected with av. 164 CsMc. In southern areas, 538 (39.5%) fish were infected with av. 159 CsMc. In the analysis of endemicity in 3 regions with an index fish, P. herzi, 9 (6.2%) of 146 P. herzi from northern areas were infected with av. 2.8 CsMc. In middle areas, 34 (31.8%) of 107 P. herzi were infected with av. 215 CsMc, and in southern areas, 158 (92.9%) of 170 P. herzi were infected with av. 409 CsMc. From these results, it has been confirmed that the infection status of fish with CsMc is obviously different among the 3 latitudinal regions of the Korean peninsula with higher prevalence and burden in southern regions
    corecore