2,880 research outputs found

    Evidence of widespread hot plasma in a non-flaring coronal active region from Hinode/XRT

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    Nanoflares, short and intense heat pulses within spatially unresolved magnetic strands, are now considered a leading candidate to solve the coronal heating problem. However, the frequent occurrence of nanoflares requires that flare-hot plasma be present in the corona at all times. Its detection has proved elusive until now, in part because the intensities are predicted to be very faint. Here we report on the analysis of an active region observed with five filters by Hinode/XRT in November 2006. We have used the filter ratio method to derive maps of temperature and emission measure both in soft and hard ratios. These maps are approximate in that the plasma is assumed to be isothermal along each line-of-sight. Nonetheless, the hardest available ratio reveals the clear presence of plasma around 10 MK. To obtain more detailed information about the plasma properties, we have performed Monte Carlo simulations assuming a variety of non-isothermal emission measure distributions along the lines-of-sight. We find that the observed filter ratios imply bi-modal distributions consisting of a strong cool (log T ~ 6.3-6.5) component and a weaker (few percent) and hotter (6.6 < log T < 7.2) component. The data are consistent with bi-modal distributions along all lines of sight, i.e., throughout the active region. We also find that the isothermal temperature inferred from a filter ratio depends sensitively on the precise temperature of the cool component. A slight shift of this component can cause the hot component to be obscured in a hard ratio measurement. Consequently, temperature maps made in hard and soft ratios tend to be anti-correlated. We conclude that this observation supports the presence of widespread nanoflaring activity in the active region.Comment: 12 figures, accepted for publication on refereed journa

    Productivity Dynamics across European Regions: the Impact of Structural and Cohesion Funds

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    This paper analyzes the impact of the European Union regional policy of the three programming periods 1975-1988, 1989-1993 and 1994-1999 on the dynamics of productivity of European regions. On average, funding had a positive, but concave, e\ufb00ect on productivity growth. In particular, a share of funds on GVA of 10% GVA is estimated to raise the regional growth rate of about 0.9% per year. However, by separately considering the three programming periods and the composition of the funds according to the objectives de\ufb01ned by the EU, we \ufb01nd that: i) only the funds allocated in the second and third programming periods, when they remarkably increased, had a signi\ufb01cant impact; and ii) only Objective 1 and Cohesion funds played a signi\ufb01cantly positive impact, while funds devoted to Objectives 2, 3, 4 and 5 had a negative or non signi\ufb01cant impact. The results are robust to potential endogeneity of funds and spatial dependence

    Deep and Proximate Determinants of the World Income Distribution

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    This paper studies the deep and proximate determinants of the evolution of the cross-country distribution of GDP per worker in the period 1960–2008 by a novel method based on an information criterion. We find that countries of our sample follow three distinctive growth regimes identified by two deep determinants, namely life expectancy at birth in 1960 and the share of Catholics in 1965, and that each regime is characterized by non-linearities. Growth regimes appear to be the main cause of the increased inequality and polarization, while technological catch-up, proxied by the initial level of GDP per worker, acts in the opposite direction. Finally, human capital marginally reduces polarization, while investment rates and employment growth have no distributional effect

    Counterfactual Distribution Dynamics across European Regions

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    This paper proposes a methodology which combines elements of parametric regression analysis with the nonparametric distribution dynamics approach in order to analyse the role of some variables in the convergence of productivity across European regions over the period 1980-2002. We find that the initial productivity crucially accounts in the convergence process across European regions. Differently, employment growth seems not to play a role, while the Structural and Cohesion Funds seem to play a positive role, even though such effect seems to be very low and statistically significant only at the low bound of the range of initial productivity. The structural change of regional economies plays a positive role, but such effect is statistically significant only for the least productive regions. The output composition of a region in 1980 affects the convergence process of productivity growth in several ways. In particular, the share of non market services on output acts like a source of convergence from 1980 to 2002 but in the long-run it plays a negligible role. Finally, the share of finance acts like a force of divergence across European regions, especially for the least productive regions

    On the Determinants of Distribution Dynamics

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    n this paper we propose a novel approach to identify the impact of growth determinants on the distribution dynamics of productivit y. Our approach integrates counterfactual analysis with the estima tion of stochastic kernels. The counterfactuals are constructed from a semi-parametric growth regression, in which the cross-section heterogeneity in the growth determinants is removed. The methodology also allows us to test for potential distributional effects in the residuals. We illustrate the usefulness of the proposed methodology by an application to a cross-section of countries, which highlights the significant impact on inequality and polarization in the world productivity distribution of growth determinants from an augmented Solow model

    On the Determinants of Distribution Dynamics

    Get PDF
    n this paper we propose a novel approach to identify the impact of growth determinants on the distribution dynamics of productivit y. Our approach integrates counterfactual analysis with the estima tion of stochastic kernels. The counterfactuals are constructed from a semi-parametric growth regression, in which the cross-section heterogeneity in the growth determinants is removed. The methodology also allows us to test for potential distributional effects in the residuals. We illustrate the usefulness of the proposed methodology by an application to a cross-section of countries, which highlights the significant impact on inequality and polarization in the world productivity distribution of growth determinants from an augmented Solow model

    Patient-reported outcome assessment of inflammatory arthritis patient experience with intravenously administered biologic therapy

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    Objective: To evaluate patient perspectives regarding utilization of intravenous (IV) therapy for inflammatory arthritis (IA). Methods: This was a single-center, non-interventional, patient questionnaire-based study of adult IA patients currently receiving IV biologics. At a single visit, patients completed the questionnaire comprising 30 questions centered on their experience receiving an intravenously administered therapy to treat their IA. The questionnaire included questions on patient demographics, disease characteristics, and previous biologic treatment for IA (subcutaneous [SC] and IV). Patients rated their level of agreement with statements regarding satisfaction with current IV biologic therapy and potential advantages and disadvantages of IV biologic therapy using a 5-point Likert scale (1= strongly disagree, 5= strongly agree). Results: One hundred patients were enrolled and completed the survey; 66% were female and the mean age was 58 years. Before IV treatment, 97% of patients received information regarding therapy options. Ninety patients ranked their satisfaction with current IV therapy as 4 or 5. The proportion of patients with an “extremely favorable” perception of IV therapy increased from 33% to 71% following initiation of their current medication. Thirty-one patients had previously received SC therapies to treat their IA. Conclusion: These results demonstrated an overall favorable perception of IV therapy among this patient population. Patients previously treated with SC therapy also had a positive shift in the perception of IV therapy after initiating IV therapy. Patients’ perception and preference for treatment options should be highly considered by the treating physician during or as part of a shared decision-making process. © 2017 Gaylis et al

    The Role of Emotional Intelligence in Health Care Professionals Burnout

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    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and burnout in health care professionals. More specifically, this survey has the purpose of demonstrating the role of EI as a protective factor against the risk of burnout. Health professionals (doctors, nurses, and other caregivers) composed the sample. Data, collected during professional training, provided 148 employees. Major results of this survey underline the relationship between EI and burnout. As we expected, there is a negative and significant correlation between burnout and Emotional Intelligence. Moreover, burnout varies depending on length of service: burnout increases between 5 and 10 years of experience and decreases over 10 years. Indeed, burnout is differently expressed amongst healthcare professionals: more specifically, Psycho-physical exhaustion, Detriment of the relationships and Burnout (total score) has an impact on physician (doctors) more than other investigated health professionals. These findings seem to suggest the opportunity to improve Emotional Intelligence abilities through specific training programs, useful to promote the ability to cope with stress and to enrich the relationships in the workplace
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