49 research outputs found

    Regulation of labour market intermediaries and the role of social partners in preventing trafficking of labour

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    This report aims to contribute to the development of a best practice guide for public authorities on monitoring and enforcing rules and regulations relevant to labour market intermediaries to prevent trafficking for labour exploitation. The report brings together research findings on two main areas: how labour market intermediaries are regulated by public authorities in the different Member States, and to what extent social partners’ activities contribute to preventing trafficking for the purpose of labour exploitation. The main focus of the report is on trafficking for the purpose of labour exploitation and does not cover trafficking for sexual exploitation. The report is based on information provided by Eurofound’s network of European correspondents across all 28 EU Member States and Norwa

    Regional policy and minorities in the EU: The case of western Thrace, Greece.

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    Since the 1980s regional policy has played an increasingly important role in the political agenda of the European Union. Influenced by these external policies and by particular political and social circumstances internally, Greece has gradually introduced reforms in order to update its domestic system of regional and local government. Accordingly, during the 1990s an elected first and second tier of local government was created in Greece. The new regional and local government reforms have affected Greek society in many ways, ranging from economic development to the promotion of local cultures. The aim of the thesis is to examine these reforms and the increasing EU structural funds in relation to issues of ethnicity and ethnic/religious minorities. The focus is on the Muslim minority that inhabits the region of Western Thrace, which is the only officially recognised minority population in Greece. The study is divided into three main parts. The first part looks at the issues of regional and local government both in the European Union and more specifically in Greece. The second part focuses on the Muslim minority itself, examining the recent history of the area and the political and educational issues affecting the Muslim minority. The final part embraces the main points of the thesis whilst concentrating on the issues that directly relate to the new local government reforms and the local society. The main purpose of the thesis is to contribute its findings to our understanding of regionalism and minorities as the European Union expands while reflecting the experiences from the area of Western Thrace in Greece

    Treading lightly: regularised migrant workers in Europe

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    This study draws on qualitative interviews with regularised, semi-documented and undocumented migrant workers in seven EU countries, each with a different experience of implementing regularisations as a policy tool to manage undocumented migration. The article examines the relationship between a regularised or documented status and work conditions, including access to employment and social rights. It sheds light on the importance of labour market structures in creating opportunities or otherwise for those with newly acquired legality in the host country. The complex impact of migrant status alongside the importance of a strong industrial relations system to enforce rights at work is revealed

    Age, gender and race in the workplace: discrimination in recruitment

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    Despite the growing participation of older workers in the labour market, age discrimination prevails and many employers are prejudiced against older workers (Bowman et al 2017). Several studies have shown that age often intersects with other characteristics such as gender, contributing to ‘double’ or multiple discrimination. Using quantitative research and qualitative interviews, our study focused on the topic of discrimination in the UK at the recruitment stage. The experiment was conducted during 2017 whilst the qualitative research is on going. Findings suggest that that there is evidence of discrimination based on the characteristics of age, gender and race/ethnicity: older women are more likely to be excluded from job interviews; Black older women experience further difficulties in gaining an interview. Moreover, those selected tend to be shortlisted for lower status jobs. The paper will engage with theories of intersectionality, as well as ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ types of discrimination, in order to explore notions of the ‘ideal worker’. There are several implications in the findings. Here we will focus on three main challenges: first, of legislation which does not fully cover ‘triple discrimination’; second, for trade unions in dealing with cases of multiple discrimination; and third for policy makers who despite the government encouragement, witness older workers in the labour marker excluded during the process of recruitment. The research has been conducted during a period of uncertainty around Brexit and the paper will take this factor into consideration

    Submission to the Justice and Home Affairs Committee Committee’s Inquiry into ‘Family Migration’

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    This submission to the Inquiry builds on several past and ongoing research and consultancy projects that focus on the areas of family policy in relation to international migration. We do not attempt to respond to all questions, but only those areas within our personal knowledge and expertise. In terms of geographic coverage, findings (differentiated within the text below by locality) relate to the UK-wide picture in terms of policy and reflects findings from studies undertaken across several regions (eg., Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, Essex, London and Kent). Our response also includes the perspectives of UK Armed Forces veterans who currently reside in their home countries due to an inability to acquire British citizenship/the right to remain in the UK after leaving service. The key contributions and proposals in this submission relate to the following questions: i. Design of family migration law: questions 1, 2, 3. ii. How family migration policies affect society: question 6. iii. How migration policies affect families: question

    History and classification of Aigai virus (formerly Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus genotype VI)

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    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is the medically most important member of the rapidly expanding bunyaviral family Nairoviridae. Traditionally, CCHFV isolates have been assigned to six distinct genotypes. Here, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Nairoviridae Study Group outlines the reasons for the recent decision to re-classify genogroup VI (aka Europe-2 or AP-92-like) as a distinct virus, Aigai virus (AIGV)

    The whole genome sequence of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), reveals insights into the biology and adaptive evolution of a highly invasive pest species

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    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is a major destructive insect pest due to its broad host range, which includes hundreds of fruits and vegetables. It exhibits a unique ability to invade and adapt to ecological niches throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world, though medfly infestations have been prevented and controlled by the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of integrated pest management programs (IPMs). The genetic analysis and manipulation of medfly has been subject to intensive study in an effort to improve SIT efficacy and other aspects of IPM control

    SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 is associated with greater disease severity among hospitalised women but not men: multicentre cohort study.

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    BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 has been associated with an increased rate of transmission and disease severity among subjects testing positive in the community. Its impact on hospitalised patients is less well documented. METHODS: We collected viral sequences and clinical data of patients admitted with SARS-CoV-2 and hospital-onset COVID-19 infections (HOCIs), sampled 16 November 2020 to 10 January 2021, from eight hospitals participating in the COG-UK-HOCI study. Associations between the variant and the outcomes of all-cause mortality and intensive therapy unit (ITU) admission were evaluated using mixed effects Cox models adjusted by age, sex, comorbidities, care home residence, pregnancy and ethnicity. FINDINGS: Sequences were obtained from 2341 inpatients (HOCI cases=786) and analysis of clinical outcomes was carried out in 2147 inpatients with all data available. The HR for mortality of B.1.1.7 compared with other lineages was 1.01 (95% CI 0.79 to 1.28, p=0.94) and for ITU admission was 1.01 (95% CI 0.75 to 1.37, p=0.96). Analysis of sex-specific effects of B.1.1.7 identified increased risk of mortality (HR 1.30, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.78, p=0.096) and ITU admission (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.90, p=0.011) in females infected with the variant but not males (mortality HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.10, p=0.177; ITU HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.04, p=0.086). INTERPRETATION: In common with smaller studies of patients hospitalised with SARS-CoV-2, we did not find an overall increase in mortality or ITU admission associated with B.1.1.7 compared with other lineages. However, women with B.1.1.7 may be at an increased risk of admission to intensive care and at modestly increased risk of mortality.This report was produced by members of the COG-UK-HOCI Variant substudy consortium. COG-UK-HOCI is part of COG-UK. COG-UK is supported by funding from the Medical Research Council (MRC) part of UK Research & Innovation (UKRI), the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) and Genome Research Limited, operating as the Wellcome Sanger Institute

    2021 Taxonomic update of phylum Negarnaviricota (Riboviria: Orthornavirae), including the large orders Bunyavirales and Mononegavirales.

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    Correction to: 2021 Taxonomic update of phylum Negarnaviricota (Riboviria: Orthornavirae), including the large orders Bunyavirales and Mononegavirales. Archives of Virology (2021) 166:3567–3579. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00705-021-05266-wIn March 2021, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. The phylum was expanded by four families (Aliusviridae, Crepuscuviridae, Myriaviridae, and Natareviridae), three subfamilies (Alpharhabdovirinae, Betarhabdovirinae, and Gammarhabdovirinae), 42 genera, and 200 species. Thirty-nine species were renamed and/or moved and seven species were abolished. This article presents the updated taxonomy of Negarnaviricota as now accepted by the ICTV.This work was supported in part through Laulima Government Solutions, LLC prime contract with the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) under Contract No. HHSN272201800013C. J.H.K. performed this work as an employee of Tunnell Government Services (TGS), a subcontractor of Laulima Government Solutions, LLC under Contract No. HHSN272201800013C. This work was also supported in part with federal funds from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), under Contract No. 75N91019D00024, Task Order No. 75N91019F00130 to I.C., who was supported by the Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, Frederick National Lab for Cancer Research. This work was also funded in part by Contract No. HSHQDC-15-C-00064 awarded by DHS S&T for the management and operation of The National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center, a federally funded research and development center operated by the Battelle National Biodefense Institute (V.W.); and NIH contract HHSN272201000040I/HHSN27200004/D04 and grant R24AI120942 (N.V., R.B.T.). S.S. acknowledges partial support from the Special Research Initiative of Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station (MAFES), Mississippi State University, and the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, US Department of Agriculture, Hatch Project 1021494. Part of this work was supported by the Francis Crick Institute which receives its core funding from Cancer Research UK (FC001030), the UK Medical Research Council (FC001030), and the Wellcome Trust (FC001030).S
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