143 research outputs found

    Suppression of Second-Order Harmonic Current for Droop-Controlled Distributed Energy Resource Converters in DC Microgrids

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    Droop-controlled distributed energy resource converters in dc microgrids usually show low output impedances. When coupled with ac systems, second-order harmonics typically appear on the dc-bus voltage, causing significant harmonic currents at the converters resource side. This paper shows how to reduce such undesired currents by means of notch filters and resonant regulators included in the converters control loops. The main characteristics of these techniques in terms of harmonic attenuation and stability are systematically investigated. In particular, it is shown that the voltage control-loop bandwidth is limited to be below twice the line frequency to avoid instability. Then, a modified notch filter and a modified resonant regulator are proposed, allowing to remove the constraint on the voltage loop bandwidth. The resulting methods (i.e., the notch filter, the resonant regulator, and their corresponding modified versions) are evaluated in terms of output impedance and stability. Experimental results from a dc microgrid prototype composed of three dc-dc converters and one dc-ac converter, all with a rated power of 5kW, are reported

    Plug and Play DC-DC Converters for Smart DC Nanogrids with Advanced Control Ancillary Services

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    This paper gives a general view of the control possibilities for dc-dc converters in dc nanogrids. A widely adopted control method is the droop control, which is able to achieve proportional load sharing among multiple sources and to stabilize the voltage of the dc distribution bus. Based on the droop control, several advanced control functions can be implemented. For example, power-based droop controllers allow dc-dc converters to operate with power flow control or droop control, whether the hosting nanogrid is operating connected to a strong upstream grid or it is operating autonomously (i.e., islanded). Converters can also be equipped with various supporting functions. Functions that are expected to play a crucial role in nanogrids that fully embrace the plug-and-play paradigm are those aiming at the monitoring and tuning of the key performance indices of the control loops. On-line stability monitoring tools respond to this need, by continuously providing estimates of the stability margins of the loops of interest; self- tuning can be eventually achieved on the basis of the obtained estimates. These control solutions can significantly enhance the operation and the plug-and-play feature of dc nanogrids, even with a variable number of hosted converters. Experimental results are reported to show the performance of the control approaches

    Analysis of an On-Line Stability Monitoring Approach for DC Microgrid Power Converters

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    An online approach to evaluate and monitor the stability margins of dc microgrid power converters is presented in this paper. The discussed online stability monitoring technique is based on the Middlebrook's loop-gain measurement technique, adapted to the digitally controlled power converters. In this approach, a perturbation is injected into a specific digital control loop of the converter and after measuring the loop gain, its crossover frequency and phase margin are continuously evaluated and monitored. The complete analytical derivation of the model, as well as detailed design aspects, are reported. In addition, the presence of multiple power converters connected to the same dc bus, all having the stability monitoring unit, is also investigated. An experimental microgrid prototype is implemented and considered to validate the theoretical analysis and simulation results, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the digital implementation of the technique for different control loops. The obtained results confirm the expected performance of the stability monitoring tool in steady-state and transient operating conditions. The proposed method can be extended to generic control loops in power converters operating in dc microgrids

    A Distributed Electrical Model for Interdigitated back Contact Silicon Solar Cells

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    AbstractIn this paper we introduce a quasi 3-D electrical model for a high efficiency interdigitated back contact (IBC) solar cell. This distributed electrical network is based on two-diodes circuit elementary units. It allows accounting for the resistive losses due to the transport through the emitter, the back surface field (BSF) and the fingers and busbars metallization. Moreover, it can model the electrical shading losses attributed to the BSF busbar. We calibrated the electrical components of the model according to experimental measurements on real devices. The validity of the model is demonstrated by the good agreement between simulation and experimental results for dark and illuminated IV measurements with and without masked busbars. The model can now easily be applied to simulate and optimize different metal grid layouts

    Analysis of the impact of doping levels on performance of back contact - back junction solar cells

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    AbstractIn this work, by exploiting two-dimensional (2-D) TCAD numerical simulations, we performed a study of the impact of the doping levels on the main figures of merit in the different regions of a crystalline silicon Back-Contact Back-Junction (BC-BJ) solar cell: the emitter, the Back Surface Field (BSF) and the Front Surface Field (FSF). The study is supported by a dark loss analysis which can highlight the contribution of several recombination mechanisms to the total diode saturation current. The efficiency curve as a function of doping level exhibits a bell-shape with a clearly identifiable optimum value for the three regions. The decrease in efficiency observed at lower doping values is explained in terms of higher contact recombination for BSF and emitter, and in terms of higher surface recombination for FSF. The efficiency decrease observed at higher doping values is ascribed to the higher surface recombination for FSF and Auger recombination for all cases

    Simulation Study of Multi-wire front Contact Grids for Silicon Solar Cells

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    Abstract Multi-wire (MW) front-contact schemes represent a promising alternative to standard H-pattern structure with ribbon busbar (BB) in silicon solar cells. In the case of MW schemes, busbar are replaced by copper wires. MW have been demonstrated to enhance the photo-generation with respect to a standard H-pattern structure with ribbon busbar when solar cells are encapsulated and assembled in modules. However, the influence of the geometrical and optical properties of the encapsulation layers as well as of wires on the optical effective shading is not exhaustively treated by the literature. In this work, we have performed electro-optical simulations of MW and BB based solar cells in order to calculate the effective optical shading factor, the enhancement of conversion efficiency and the saving of contact-paste, with respect to the BB design. Specifically, we have studied by means of a ray-tracing simulation tool the significant impact of the front contact grid geometry, of the encapsulation layer thickness and of the optical properties of the cell front interface on the effective optical shading. The calculated values of effective optical shading are used to determine the enhancement of the figures of merit and the paste saving with respect to the reference silver BB scheme. On the basis of our calculations the adoption of optimized MW designs may enhance the conversion efficiency up to 0.5% abs , allowing paste saving up to 50 mg per cell

    A Comparative Study of MWT Architectures by Means of Numerical Simulations

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    AbstractIn order to improve the efficiency of c-Si and mc-Si solar cells, Metal Wrap Though (MWT) architecture is investigated. In this paper we implement TCAD numerical simulations to analyze the performance of MWT cells with a point busbar or a continuous busbar at the back side. The two topologies of MWT cells are compared in both illuminated and dark conditions, aiming at understanding and comparing the resistive and recombination losses. The impact of the separation region is also studied, highlighting the degradation effect on the Fill Factor (FF) and on the efficiency in the two structures. We observe that the separation region dimension leads to a higher degradation of efficiency in case of continuous busbar

    Thoracic wall reconstruction with Collamend¬ģ in trauma: report of a case and review of the literature

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    Introduction: Despite progress in reconstructive techniques, rebuilding portions of the thorax remains challenging, in particular when large resections, contamination or infection are involved. No other cases of thoracic reconstruction in trauma patients with biological prosthesis have been described since now.Methods: We report a case of thoracic reconstruction in highly infected field in a trauma patient. We also performed a literature review about the topic.Conclusion: Collamend¬ģ demonstrated its usefulness in thoracic wall reconstruction even in trauma patients and infected fields. ¬© 2012 Coccolini et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd

    Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in an Italian zoo

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    A fatal Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection epidemic involving fifteen primates occurred between October 2006 and February 2007 at the Natura Viva Zoo. This large open-field zoo park located near Lake Garda in Northern Italy hosts one thousand animals belonging to one hundred and fifty different species, including various lemur species. This lemur collection is the most relevant and rich in Italy. A second outbreak between September and November 2008 involved three lemurs. In all cases, the clinical signs were sudden deaths generally without any evident symptoms or only with mild unspecific clinical signs. Gross pathologic changes were characterized by myocarditis (diffuse or focal pallor of the myocardium), pulmonary congestion, emphysema, oedema and thoracic fluid. The EMCV was isolated and recognized as the causative agent of both outbreaks. The first outbreak in particular was associated with a rodent plague, confirming that rats are an important risk factor for the occurrence of the EMCV infection
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