112 research outputs found

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach for the characterization of goat milk compared with cow milk

    Get PDF
    In this work, the polar metabolite pool of commercial caprine milk was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical data analysis. Experimental data were compared with those of cow milk and the discriminant analysis correctly classified milk. By the same means, differences due to heat treatments (UHT or pasteurization) on milk samples were also investigated. Results of the 2 discriminant analyses were combined, with the aim of finding the discriminant metabolites unique for each class and shared by 2 classes. Valine and glycine were specific to goat milk, talose and malic acid to cow milk, and hydroxyglutaric acid to pasteurized samples. Glucose and fructose were shared by cow milk and UHT-treated samples, whereas ribose was shared by pasteurized and goat milk. Other discriminant variables were not attributed to specific metabolites. Furthermore, with the aim to reduce food fraud, the issue of adulteration of caprine milk by addition of cheaper bovine milk has been also addressed. To this goal, mixtures of goat and cow milk were prepared by adding the latter in a range from 0 to 100% (vol/vol) and studied by multivariate regression analysis. The error in the level of cow milk detectable was approximately 5%. These overall results demonstrated that, through the combined approach of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical data analysis, we were able to discriminate between milk typologies on the basis of their polar metabolite profiles and to propose a new analytical method to easily discover food fraud and to protect goat milk uniqueness. The use of appropriate visualization tools improved the interpretation of multivariate model results

    GC-MS Metabolomics and Antifungal Characteristics of Autochthonous Lactobacillus Strains

    Get PDF
    Lactobacillus strains with the potential of protecting fresh dairy products from spoilage were studied. Metabolism and antifungal activity of different L. plantarum, L. brevis, and L. sakei strains, isolated from Sardinian dairy and meat products, were assessed. The metabolite fingerprint of each strain was obtained by GC-MS and data submitted to multivariate statistical analysis. The discriminant analysis correctly classified samples to the Lactobacillus species and indicated that, with respect to the other species, L. plantarum had higher levels of organic acids, while L. brevis and L. sakei showed higher levels of sugars than L. plantarum. Partial Least Square (PLS) regression correlated the GC-MS metabolites to the antifungal activity (p Lactobacillus strains and indicated that organic acids and oleamide are positively related with this ability. Some of the metabolites identified in this study have been reported to possess health promoting proprieties. These overall results suggest that the GC-MS-based metabolomic approach is a useful tool for the characterization of Lactobacillus strains as biopreservatives

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry untargeted metabolomics approach to discriminate Fiore Sardo cheese produced from raw or thermized ovine milk.

    Get PDF
    Thermization is a sub-pasteurization heat treatment of cheese milk (at 57-68¬įC for 15-30 s) aimed to reduce the number of undesirable microbial contaminants with reduced heat damage to the indigenous milk enzymes. In this work, the effects of milk thermization on the compositional parameters, proteolysis indices, free fatty acid levels, and low molecular weight metabolite profiles of ovine cheese were studied. Cheese samples at different ripening stages and produced in 2 different periods of the year were analyzed. While the effects of milk thermization on cheese macro-compositional parameters and free fatty acid levels were not evident due to the predominant effects of milk seasonality and cheese ripening stage, the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach of ovine cheese produced from raw and thermized milk highlighted strong differences at the metabolite level. Discriminant analysis applied to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data provided an excellent classification model where cheese samples were correctly classified as produced from raw or thermized milk. The metabolites that mostly changed due to the thermization process belonged to the classes of free amino acids and saccharides. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics has proven to be a valid tool to study the effect of mild heat treatments on the polar metabolite profile in ovine cheese

    Glutamine Starvation Affects Cell Cycle, Oxidative Homeostasis and Metabolism in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Get PDF
    Cancer cells adjust their metabolism to meet energy demands. In particular, glutamine addiction represents a distinctive feature of several types of tumors, including colorectal cancer. In this study, four colorectal cancer cell lines (Caco-2, HCT116, HT29 and SW480) were cultured with or without glutamine. The growth and proliferation rate, colony-forming capacity, apoptosis, cell cycle, redox homeostasis and metabolomic analysis were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide test (MTT), flow cytometry, high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques. The results show that glutamine represents an important metabolite for cell growth and that its deprivation reduces the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells. Glutamine depletion induces cell death and cell cycle arrest in the GO/G1 phase by modulating energy metabolism, the amino acid content and antioxidant defenses. Moreover, the combined glutamine starvation with the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose exerted a stronger cytotoxic effect. This study offers a strong rationale for targeting glutamine metabolism alone or in combination with glucose metabolism to achieve a therapeutic benefit in the treatment of colon cancer

    Clinical Features and Outcome of 79 Dogs With Digital Squamous Cell Carcinoma Undergoing Treatment: A SIONCOV Observational Study

    Get PDF
    In dogs, digit squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is uncommon. Clinical signs are frequently underestimated, leading to a diagnostic delay. The purpose of this retrospective study was to report our experience regarding the clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up, treatment and outcome of 79 client-owned dogs with SCC of the digit. The greatest majority (84.8%) of dogs was dark-coated. Schnauzers represented approximately one third of the study population, and had a poorer outcome compared with other breeds. The majority of SCCs occurred in the front limbs (61%), and bone lysis was frequently observed (92.4%). Approximately 9% of dogs had involvement of multiple digits, and this was associated with a shorter time to progression (TTP; P = 0.047). Similarly, a duration of clinical signs >90 days was associated with a shorter TTP (P = 0.02). Regional lymph node metastases were documented in 17.7% of dogs at admission and were significantly associated with tumor-related death (P < 0.001). At presentation, none of the dogs had evidence of distant metastasis. Digit amputation achieved adequate local tumor control in the majority of cases. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy were carried out in 21.5% of cases, with uncertain benefit. Due to the relatively non-aggressive clinical behavior of digit SCC, chemotherapy should only be offered in the case of metastatic disease. Approximately one fourth of dogs developed de novo SCCs during the follow-up. Careful examination of the digits should be encouraged in breeds considered at high risk and in dogs with a previous history of digital SCC

    Crosstalk between Metabolic Alterations and Altered Redox Balance in PTC-Derived Cell Lines.

    Get PDF
    Background: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) being the most common (85‚ĀĽ90%) among all the different types of thyroid carcinomas. Cancer cells show metabolic alterations and, due to their rapid proliferation, an accumulation of reactive oxygen species, playing a fundamental role in cancer development and progression. Currently, the crosstalk among thyrocytes metabolism, redox balance and oncogenic mutations remain poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the interplay among metabolic alterations, redox homeostasis and oncogenic mutations in PTC-derived cells. Methods: Metabolic and redox profile, glutamate-cysteine ligase, glutaminase-1 and metabolic transporters were evaluated in PTC-derived cell lines with distinguished genetic background (TPC-1, K1 and B-CPAP), as well as in an immortalized thyroid cell line (Nthy-ori3-1) selected as control. Results: PTC-derived cells, particularly B-CPAP cells, harboring BRAF, TP53 and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mutation, displayed an increase of metabolites and transporters involved in energetic pathways. Furthermore, all PTC-derived cells showed altered redox homeostasis, as reported by the decreased antioxidant ratios, as well as the increased levels of intracellular oxidant species. Conclusion: Our findings confirmed the pivotal role of the metabolism and redox state regulation in the PTC biology. Particularly, the most perturbed metabolic phenotypes were found in B-CPAP cells, which are characterized by the most aggressive genetic background

    Clinical Features and Outcome of 79 Dogs With Digital Squamous Cell Carcinoma Undergoing Treatment: A SIONCOV Observational Study

    Get PDF
    In dogs, digit squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is uncommon. Clinical signs are frequently underestimated, leading to a diagnostic delay. The purpose of this retrospective study was to report our experience regarding the clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up, treatment and outcome of 79 client-owned dogs with SCC of the digit. The greatest majority (84.8%) of dogs was dark-coated. Schnauzers represented approximately one third of the study population, and had a poorer outcome compared with other breeds. The majority of SCCs occurred in the front limbs (61%), and bone lysis was frequently observed (92.4%). Approximately 9% of dogs had involvement of multiple digits, and this was associated with a shorter time to progression (TTP; P = 0.047). Similarly, a duration of clinical signs >90 days was associated with a shorter TTP (P = 0.02). Regional lymph node metastases were documented in 17.7% of dogs at admission and were significantly associated with tumor-related death (P < 0.001). At presentation, none of the dogs had evidence of distant metastasis. Digit amputation achieved adequate local tumor control in the majority of cases. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy were carried out in 21.5% of cases, with uncertain benefit. Due to the relatively non-aggressive clinical behavior of digit SCC, chemotherapy should only be offered in the case of metastatic disease. Approximately one fourth of dogs developed de novo SCCs during the follow-up. Careful examination of the digits should be encouraged in breeds considered at high risk and in dogs with a previous history of digital SCC

    A change in the optical polarization associated with a gamma-ray flare in the blazar 3C 279

    Get PDF
    It is widely accepted that strong and variable radiation detected over all accessible energy bands in a number of active galaxies arises from a relativistic, Doppler-boosted jet pointing close to our line of sight. The size of the emitting zone and the location of this region relative to the central supermassive black hole are, however, poorly known, with estimates ranging from light-hours to a light-year or more. Here we report the coincidence of a gamma-ray flare with a dramatic change of optical polarization angle. This provides evidence for co-spatiality of optical and gamma-ray emission regions and indicates a highly ordered jet magnetic field. The results also require a non-axisymmetric structure of the emission zone, implying a curved trajectory for the emitting material within the jet, with the dissipation region located at a considerable distance from the black hole, at about 10^5 gravitational radii.Comment: Published in Nature issued on 18 February 2010. Corresponding authors: Masaaki Hayashida and Greg Madejsk
    • ‚Ķ
    corecore