37 research outputs found

    Bose-Einstein condensation in the presence of an impurity

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    It is shown that Bose-Einstein condensation occurs for an ideal gas in two spatial dimensions in the presence of one impurity which is described quantum mechanically in terms of a point-like vortex and a contact interaction. This model is exactly solvable and embodies as a special case the analogous problem in three spatial dimensions.Comment: 6 pages, LaTeX, no figures. Misprints correcte

    On the mystery of the missing pie in graphene

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    We investigate in some detail the structure of the electromagnetic current density for the pseudo-relativistic massless spinor effective model for graphene. It is shown that the pseudo-relativistic massless Dirac field theory in {\em 2+1} space-time dimensions and in the presence of a constant homogeneous electric field actually leads to the measured current density and to the minimum quantum conductivity.Comment: 10 pages, no figures, substantial changes and added reference

    Exact Solution of the one-impurity quantum Hall problem

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    The problem of a non-relativistic electron in the presence of a uniform electromagnetic field and of one impurity, described by means of an Aharonov-Bohm point-like vortex, is studied. The exact solution is found and the quantum Hall's conductance turns out to be the same as in the impurity-free case. This exactly solvable model seems to give indications, concerning the possible microscopic mechanisms underlying the integer quantum Hall effect, which sensibly deviate from some proposals available in the literature.Comment: 25 pages, TeX, to appear in J. Phys.

    The quantum Hall effect in graphene samples and the relativistic Dirac effective action

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    We study the Euclidean effective action per unit area and the charge density for a Dirac field in a two--dimensional spatial region, in the presence of a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the 2D--plane, at finite temperature and density. In the limit of zero temperature we reproduce, after performing an adequate Lorentz boost, the Hall conductivity measured for different kinds of graphene samples, depending upon the phase choice in the fermionic determinant.Comment: Conclusions extended. References added. 9 pages. 1 figur

    The quantum Hall effect in graphene samples and the relativistic Dirac effective action

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    We study the Euclidean effective action per unit area and the charge density for a Dirac field in a two--dimensional spatial region, in the presence of a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the 2D--plane, at finite temperature and density. In the limit of zero temperature we reproduce, after performing an adequate Lorentz boost, the Hall conductivity measured for different kinds of graphene samples, depending upon the phase choice in the fermionic determinant.Instituto de Física La Plat

    Planar QED at finite temperature and density: Hall conductivity, Berry's phases and minimal conductivity of graphene

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    We study 1-loop effects for massless Dirac fields in two spatial dimensions, coupled to homogeneous electromagnetic backgrounds, both at zero and at finite temperature and density. In the case of a purely magnetic field, we analyze the relationship between the invariance of the theory under large gauge transformations, the appearance of Chern-Simons terms and of different Berry's phases. In the case of a purely electric background field, we show that the effective Lagrangian is independent of the chemical potential and of the temperature. More interesting: we show that the minimal conductivity, as predicted by the quantum field theory, is the right multiple of the conductivity quantum and is, thus, consistent with the value measured for graphene, with no extra factor of pi in the denominator.Instituto de Física La Plat

    On the scattering amplitude in the Aharonov-Bohm gauge field

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    A general expression for the scattering amplitude of nonrelativistic spinless particles in the Aharonov-Bohm gauge potential is obtained within the time independent formalism. The result is valid also in the backward and forward directions as well as for any choice of the boundary conditions on the wave function at the flux tube position.Comment: 18 pages, plain TE

    Planar QED at finite temperature and density: Hall conductivity, Berry's phases and minimal conductivity of graphene

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    We study 1-loop effects for massless Dirac fields in two spatial dimensions, coupled to homogeneous electromagnetic backgrounds, both at zero and at finite temperature and density. In the case of a purely magnetic field, we analyze the relationship between the invariance of the theory under large gauge transformations, the appearance of Chern-Simons terms and of different Berry's phases. In the case of a purely electric background field, we show that the effective Lagrangian is independent of the chemical potential and of the temperature. More interesting: we show that the minimal conductivity, as predicted by the quantum field theory, is the right multiple of the conductivity quantum and is, thus, consistent with the value measured for graphene, with no extra factor of pi in the denominator.Comment: 27 pages, no figures. Minor misprints corrected. Final version, to appear in J. Phys. A: Math. Ge

    Domain wall generation by fermion self-interaction and light particles

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    A possible explanation for the appearance of light fermions and Higgs bosons on the four-dimensional domain wall is proposed. The mechanism of light particle trapping is accounted for by a strong self-interaction of five-dimensional pre-quarks. We obtain the low-energy effective action which exhibits the invariance under the so called \tau-symmetry. Then we find a set of vacuum solutions which break that symmetry and the five-dimensional translational invariance. One type of those vacuum solutions gives rise to the domain wall formation with consequent trapping of light massive fermions and Higgs-like bosons as well as massless sterile scalars, the so-called branons. The induced relations between low-energy couplings for Yukawa and scalar field interactions allow to make certain predictions for light particle masses and couplings themselves, which might provide a signature of the higher dimensional origin of particle physics at future experiments. The manifest translational symmetry breaking, eventually due to some gravitational and/or matter fields in five dimensions, is effectively realized with the help of background scalar defects. As a result the branons acquire masses, whereas the ratio of Higgs and fermion (presumably top-quark) masses can be reduced towards the values compatible with the present-day phenomenology. Since the branons do not couple to fermions and the Higgs bosons do not decay into branons, the latter ones are essentially sterile and stable, what makes them the natural candidates for the dark matter in the Universe.Comment: 34 pages, 2 figures, JHEP style,few important refs. adde

    Bioinorganic Chemistry of Alzheimer’s Disease

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