432 research outputs found

    Andreev Reflection and Proximity effect

    Full text link
    The Andreev Reflection is the key mechanism for the superconducting proximity effect. It provides phase correlations in a system of non-interacting electrons at mesoscopic scales, i.e. over distances much larger than the microscopic lengths : Fermi wavelength and elastic electron mean free path. This field of research has attracted an increasing interest in the recent years in part because of the tremendous development of nanofabrication technologies, and also because of the richness of the involved quantum effects. In this paper we review some recently achieved advances. We also discuss new open questions, in particular non-equilibrium effects and proximity effect in systems with ferromagnetic elements.Comment: 17 pages, no figure, to appear in J. of Low Temp. Phys., proceeding of the LT satellite conference "Electron Transport in Mesoscopic Systems", reference list correcte

    Charge density wave transport in submicron antidot arrays in NbSe3

    Full text link
    We demonstrate for the first time that a periodic array of submicrometer holes (antidots) can be patterned into thin single NbSe3 crystals. We report on the study of charge density wave (CDW) transport of the network of mesoscopic units between antidots. Size of the elementary unit can be as small as 0.5 micron along the chain axis and (0.2 micron) x (0.3 micron) in cross section. We observe size effects for Ohmic residual resistance and in CDW transport current-voltage characteristics in submicronic networks.Comment: 4 pages with 1 table and 10 figures. Submitted to European Physical Journa

    Mesoscopic transition in the shot noise of diffusive S/N/S junctions

    Full text link
    We experimentally investigated the current noise in diffusive Superconductor/Normal metal/Superconductor junctions with lengths between the superconducting coherence length xi_Delta and the phase coherence length L_Phi of the normal metal (xi_Delta < L < L_Phi). We measured the shot noise over a large range of energy covering both the regimes of coherent and incoherent multiple Andreev reflections. The transition between these two regimes occurs at the Thouless energy where a pronounced minimum in the current noise density is observed. Above the Thouless energy, in the regime of incoherent multiple Andreev reflections, the noise is strongly enhanced compared to a normal junction and grows linearly with the bias voltage. Semi-classical theory describes the experimental results accurately, when taking into account the voltage dependence of the resistance which reflects the proximity effect. Below the Thouless energy, the shot noise diverges with decreasing voltage which may indicate the coherent transfer of multiple charges.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in Phys. Rev. B, Rapid Communicatio

    Local spectroscopy of a proximity superconductor at very low temperature

    Full text link
    We performed the local spectroscopy of a Normal-metal--Superconductor (N-S) junction with the help of a very low temperature (60 mK) Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM). The spatial dependence of the local density of states was probed locally in the vicinity of the N-S interface. We observed spectra with a fully-developed gap in the regions where a thin normal metal layer caps the superconductor dot. Close to the S metal edge, a clear pseudo-gap shows up, which is characteristic of the superconducting proximity effect in the case of a long normal metal. The experimental results are compared to the predictions of the quasiclassical theory.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figure

    Measurement of the Current-Phase Relation in Josephson Junctions Rhombi Chains

    Full text link
    We present low temperature transport measurements in one dimensional Josephson junctions rhombi chains. We have measured the current phase relation of a chain of 8 rhombi. The junctions are either in the classical phase regime with the Josephson energy much larger than the charging energy, EJ≫ECE_{J}\gg E_{C}, or in the quantum phase regime where EJ/EC≈2E_{J}/E_{C}\approx 2. In the strong Josephson coupling regime (EJ≫EC≫kBTE_{J}\gg E_{C} \gg k_{B}T) we observe a sawtooth-like supercurrent as a function of the phase difference over the chain. The period of the supercurrent oscillations changes abruptly from one flux quantum Φ0\Phi_{0} to half the flux quantum Φ0/2\Phi_{0}/2 as the rhombi are tuned in the vicinity of full frustration. The main observed features can be understood from the complex energy ground state of the chain. For EJ/EC≈2E_{J}/E_{C}\approx 2 we do observe a dramatic suppression and rounding of the switching current dependence which we found to be consistent with the model developed by Matveev et al.(Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 89}, 096802(2002)) for long Josephson junctions chains.Comment: to appear in Phys. Rev.

    Localization Effect in a 2D Superconducting Network without Disorder

    Full text link
    The superconducting properties of a two-dimensional superconducting wire network with a new geometry have been measured as a function of the external magnetic field. The extreme localization effect recently predicted for this periodic lattice is revealed as a suppression of the critical current when the applied magnetic field corresponds to half a flux quantum per unit cell. For this particular magnetic field, the observed vortex state configuration is highly disordered.Comment: 6 pages, 2 eps figures, submitted to Physica C. Title change

    The Josephson critical current in a long mesoscopic S-N-S junction

    Full text link
    We carry out an extensive experimental and theoretical study of the Josephson effect in S-N-S junctions made of a diffusive normal metal (N) embedded between two superconducting electrodes (S). Our experiments are performed on Nb-Cu-Nb junctions with highly-transparent interfaces. We give the predictions of the quasiclassical theory in various regimes on a precise and quantitative level. We describe the crossover between the short and the long junction regimes and provide the temperature dependence of the critical current using dimensionless units eRNIc/ϵceR_{N}I_{c}/\epsilon_{c} and kBT/ϵck_{B}T/\epsilon_{c} where ϵc\epsilon_{c} is the Thouless energy. Experimental and theoretical results are in excellent quantitative agreement.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, slighly modified version, publishe

    A very low temperature STM for the local spectroscopy of mesoscopic structures

    Full text link
    We present the design and operation of a very-low temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) working at 60mK60 mK in a dilution refrigerator. The STM features both atomic resolution and micron-sized scanning range at low temperature. This work is the first experimental realization of a local spectroscopy of mesoscopic structures at very low temperature. We present high-resolution current-voltage characteristics of tunnel contacts and the deduced local density of states of hybrid Superconductor-Normal metal systems.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figures, slightly corrected versio
    • …