253 research outputs found

    <i>Plasmodium </i>Condensin Core Subunits SMC2/SMC4 Mediate Atypical Mitosis and Are Essential for Parasite Proliferation and Transmission

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    Condensin is a multi-subunit protein complex regulating chromosome condensation and segregation during cell division. In Plasmodium spp., the causative agent of malaria, cell division is atypical and the role of condensin is unclear. Here we examine the role of SMC2 and SMC4, the core subunits of condensin, during endomitosis in schizogony and endoreduplication in male gametogenesis. During early schizogony, SMC2/SMC4 localize to a distinct focus, identified as the centromeres by NDC80 fluorescence and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) analyses, but do not form condensin I or II complexes. In mature schizonts and during male gametogenesis, there is a diffuse SMC2/SMC4 distribution on chromosomes and in the nucleus, and both condensin I and condensin II complexes form at these stages. Knockdown of smc2 and smc4 gene expression reveals essential roles in parasite proliferation and transmission. The condensin core subunits (SMC2/SMC4) form different complexes and may have distinct functions at various stages of the parasite life cycle

    MRE11 Is Crucial for Malaria Parasite Transmission and Its Absence Affects Expression of Interconnected Networks of Key Genes Essential for Life

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    The meiotic recombination 11 protein (MRE11) plays a key role in DNA damage response and maintenance of genome stability. However, little is known about its function during development of the malaria parasite Plasmodium. Here, we present a functional, ultrastructural and transcriptomic analysis of Plasmodium parasites lacking MRE11 during its life cycle in both mammalian and mosquito vector hosts. Genetic disruption of Plasmodium berghei mre11 (PbMRE11) results in significant retardation of oocyst development in the mosquito midgut associated with cytoplasmic and nuclear degeneration, along with concomitant ablation of sporogony and subsequent parasite transmission. Further, absence of PbMRE11 results in significant transcriptional downregulation of genes involved in key interconnected biological processes that are fundamental to all eukaryotic life including ribonucleoprotein biogenesis, spliceosome function and iron-sulfur cluster assembly. Overall, our study provides a comprehensive functional analysis of MRE11's role in Plasmodium development during the mosquito stages and offers a potential target for therapeutic intervention during malaria parasite transmission

    Distress, anxiety, and depression in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

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    BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy for cancer is an intense and cyclic treatment associated with number of side-effects. The present study evaluated the effect of chemotherapy on distress, anxiety and depression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 117 patients were evaluated by using distress inventory for cancer (DIC2) and hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Majority of the patients were taking chemotherapy for solid tumors (52; 44.4%). RESULTS: The mean distress score was 24, 18 (15.38%) were found to have anxiety while 19 (16.23%) had depression. High social status was the only factor found to influence distress while female gender was the only factor found to influence depression in the present study. CONCLUSION: The study highlights high psychological morbidity of cancer patients and influence of gender on depression. Construct of distress as evaluated by DIC 2 may have a possible overlap with anxiety

    Photosensitized INA-Labelled protein 1 (PhIL1) is novel component of the inner membrane complex and is required for Plasmodium parasite development.

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    Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria, possess a distinctive membranous structure of flattened alveolar vesicles supported by a proteinaceous network, and referred to as the inner membrane complex (IMC). The IMC has a role in actomyosin-mediated motility and host cell invasion. Here, we examine the location, protein interactome and function of PhIL1, an IMC-associated protein on the motile and invasive stages of both human and rodent parasites. We show that PhIL1 is located in the IMC in all three invasive (merozoite, ookinete-, and sporozoite) stages of development, as well as in the male gametocyte and locates both at the apical and basal ends of ookinete and sporozoite stages. Proteins interacting with PhIL1 were identified, showing that PhIL1 was bound to only some proteins present in the glideosome motor complex (GAP50, GAPM1-3) of both P. falciparum and P. berghei. Analysis of PhIL1 function using gene targeting approaches indicated that the protein is required for both asexual and sexual stages of development. In conclusion, we show that PhIL1 is required for development of all zoite stages of Plasmodium and it is part of a novel protein complex with an overall composition overlapping with but different to that of the glideosome

    Uncovering Disease Mechanisms in a Novel Mouse Model Expressing Humanized APOEε4 and Trem2*R47H.

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    Late-onset Alzheimer\u27s disease (AD; LOAD) is the most common human neurodegenerative disease, however, the availability and efficacy of disease-modifying interventions is severely lacking. Despite exceptional efforts to understand disease progression via legacy amyloidogenic transgene mouse models, focus on disease translation with innovative mouse strains that better model the complexity of human AD is required to accelerate the development of future treatment modalities. LOAD within the human population is a polygenic and environmentally influenced disease with many risk factors acting in concert to produce disease processes parallel to those often muted by the early and aggressive aggregate formation in popular mouse strains. In addition to extracellular deposits of amyloid plaques and inclusions of the microtubule-associated protein tau, AD is also defined by synaptic/neuronal loss, vascular deficits, and neuroinflammation. These underlying processes need to be better defined, how the disease progresses with age, and compared to human-relevant outcomes. To create more translatable mouse models, MODEL-AD (Model Organism Development and Evaluation for Late-onset AD) groups are identifying and integrating disease-relevant, humanized gene sequences from public databases beginning with APOEε4 and Trem2*R47H, two of the most powerful risk factors present in human LOAD populations. Mice expressing endogenous, humanized APOEε4 and Trem2*R47H gene sequences were extensively aged and assayed using a multi-disciplined phenotyping approach associated with and relative to human AD pathology. Robust analytical pipelines measured behavioral, transcriptomic, metabolic, and neuropathological phenotypes in cross-sectional cohorts for progression of disease hallmarks at all life stages. In vivo PET/MRI neuroimaging revealed regional alterations in glycolytic metabolism and vascular perfusion. Transcriptional profiling by RNA-Seq of brain hemispheres identified sex and age as the main sources of variation between genotypes including age-specific enrichment of AD-related processes. Similarly, age was the strongest determinant of behavioral change. In the absence of mouse amyloid plaque formation, many of the hallmarks of AD were not observed in this strain. However, as a sensitized baseline model with many additional alleles and environmental modifications already appended, the dataset from this initial MODEL-AD strain serves an important role in establishing the individual effects and interaction between two strong genetic risk factors for LOAD in a mouse host

    Comprehensive Evaluation of the 5XFAD Mouse Model for Preclinical Testing Applications: A MODEL-AD Study.

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    The ability to investigate therapeutic interventions in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases depends on extensive characterization of the model(s) being used. There are numerous models that have been generated to study Alzheimer\u27s disease (AD) and the underlying pathogenesis of the disease. While transgenic models have been instrumental in understanding AD mechanisms and risk factors, they are limited in the degree of characteristics displayed in comparison with AD in humans, and the full spectrum of AD effects has yet to be recapitulated in a single mouse model. The Model Organism Development and Evaluation for Late-Onset Alzheimer\u27s Disease (MODEL-AD) consortium was assembled by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) to develop more robust animal models of AD with increased relevance to human disease, standardize the characterization of AD mouse models, improve preclinical testing in animals, and establish clinically relevant AD biomarkers, among other aims toward enhancing the translational value of AD models in clinical drug design and treatment development. Here we have conducted a detailed characterization of the 5XFAD mouse, including transcriptomics, electroencephalogram

    The Eighth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: First Data from SDSS-III

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    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) started a new phase in August 2008, with new instrumentation and new surveys focused on Galactic structure and chemical evolution, measurements of the baryon oscillation feature in the clustering of galaxies and the quasar Ly alpha forest, and a radial velocity search for planets around ~8000 stars. This paper describes the first data release of SDSS-III (and the eighth counting from the beginning of the SDSS). The release includes five-band imaging of roughly 5200 deg^2 in the Southern Galactic Cap, bringing the total footprint of the SDSS imaging to 14,555 deg^2, or over a third of the Celestial Sphere. All the imaging data have been reprocessed with an improved sky-subtraction algorithm and a final, self-consistent photometric recalibration and flat-field determination. This release also includes all data from the second phase of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Evolution (SEGUE-2), consisting of spectroscopy of approximately 118,000 stars at both high and low Galactic latitudes. All the more than half a million stellar spectra obtained with the SDSS spectrograph have been reprocessed through an improved stellar parameters pipeline, which has better determination of metallicity for high metallicity stars.Comment: Astrophysical Journal Supplements, in press (minor updates from submitted version
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