1,256 research outputs found

    Isotope effect on the E2g phonon and mesoscopic phase separation near the electronic topological transition in Mg1-xAlxB2

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    We report the boron isotope effect on the E2g phonon mode by micro-Raman spectroscopy on the ternary Mg1-xAlxB2 system, synthesized with pure isotopes 10B and 11B. The isotope coefficient on the phonon frequency is near 0.5 in the full range decreasing near x = 0. The intraband electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling, for the electrons in the sigma band, has been extracted from the E2g line-width and frequency softening. Tuning the Fermi energy near the electronic topological transition (ETT), where the sigma Fermi surface changes from 2D to 3D topology the E2g mode, shows the known Kohn anomaly on the 2D side of the ETT and a splitting of the E2g phonon frequency into a hard and soft component from x = 0 to x = 0.28. The results suggest a minor role of the intraband phonon mediated pairing in the control of the high critical temperature in Mg1-xAlxB2. The common physical features of diborides with the novel multigap FeAs-based superconductors and cuprates is discussed.Comment: 19 pages, 6 figure

    Transmission of Xylella fastidiosa by naturally infected Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera, Aphrophoridae) to different host plants.

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    © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Applied Entomology Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH. The recent establishment of Xylella fastidiosa subspecies pauca in the southern Italian region of Apulia threatens agricultural crops and the environment. Olive is an important and widespread ancient crop in Italy and, so far, the most impacted host. The meadow spittlebug Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera, Aphrophoridae) has been identified as a vector of X. fastidiosa in southern Italy; this species is one of the most common potential vectors in Europe. To generate disease management strategies, data on X. fastidiosa transmission by P. spumarius are necessary. Therefore, we carried out transmission experiments by using field-collected spittlebugs in 2014 and 2015 (5 and 11 collection dates, respectively), and transferring groups of insects immediately on to recipient plants. Various host plant species were tested: olive, oleander, sweet orange, grapevine and the stone fruit rootstock GF677 (Prunus persica × Prunus amygdalus). Xylella fastidiosa was detected in all the host plants after insect plant access except for grapevine; infections to sweet orange and stone fruit were not systemic. In 2015, estimates of insect X. fastidiosa infectivity were obtained; the number of PCR-positive P. spumarius on each plant was positively correlated with the plant infection status. The proportion of P. spumarius infected with X. fastidiosa ranged from 25% to 71% during the entire survey period. The number of X. fastidiosa cells detected in P. spumarius heads ranged from 3.5 × 10 to 4.0 × 102(CFU equivalents), which is lower than that reported for leafhopper vectors in the Americas. These data show that field-collected P. spumarius have high rates of X. fastidiosa infection and are competent vectors

    Adaptive design of a clinical decision support tool: What the impact on utilization rates means for future CDS research

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    © The Author(s) 2019. OBJECTIVE: We employed an agile, user-centered approach to the design of a clinical decision support tool in our prior integrated clinical prediction rule study, which achieved high adoption rates. To understand if applying this user-centered process to adapt clinical decision support tools is effective in improving the use of clinical prediction rules, we examined utilization rates of a clinical decision support tool adapted from the original integrated clinical prediction rule study tool to determine if applying this user-centered process to design yields enhanced utilization rates similar to the integrated clinical prediction rule study. MATERIALS & METHODS: We conducted pre-deployment usability testing and semi-structured group interviews at 6 months post-deployment with 75 providers at 14 intervention clinics across the two sites to collect user feedback. Qualitative data analysis is bifurcated into immediate and delayed stages; we reported on immediate-stage findings from real-time field notes used to generate a set of rapid, pragmatic recommendations for iterative refinement. Monthly utilization rates were calculated and examined over 12 months. RESULTS: We hypothesized a well-validated, user-centered clinical decision support tool would lead to relatively high adoption rates. Then 6 months post-deployment, integrated clinical prediction rule study tool utilization rates were substantially lower than anticipated based on the original integrated clinical prediction rule study trial (68%) at 17% (Health System A) and 5% (Health System B). User feedback at 6 months resulted in recommendations for tool refinement, which were incorporated when possible into tool design; however, utilization rates at 12 months post-deployment remained low at 14% and 4% respectively. DISCUSSION: Although valuable, findings demonstrate the limitations of a user-centered approach given the complexity of clinical decision support. CONCLUSION: Strategies for addressing persistent external factors impacting clinical decision support adoption should be considered in addition to the user-centered design and implementation of clinical decision support

    Self-reported face recognition abilities moderately predict face-learning skills: Evidence from Italian samples

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    Face Recognition Ability (FRA) varies widely throughout the population. Previous research highlights a positive relationship between self-perceived and objectively measured FRA in the healthy population, suggesting that people do have insight into their FRA. Given that this relationship has not been investigated in Italian samples yet, the main aim of the present work was to develop an Italian translation of the Prosopagnosia Index-20 (PI-20), a self-report measure of FRA, to investigate the relationship between PI-20 performances and an objective assessment given by the Cambridge Face Memory Test Long Form (CFMT+) in the Italian population. A sample of 553 participants filled in the PI-20 Italian version 1 or 2 (PI-20_GE or PI-20_BA) and completed the CFMT+. Results showed a negative correlation between both versions of the Italian PI-20 and CFMT+ scores, meaning that the more self-evaluations were negative, the worse they objectively performed. The same results applied to the extreme limits of the distribution (i.e., 10% of the highest and lowest PI-20 scores). Furthermore, both age and administration order of the tests were predictor variables of CFMT+ scores. Overall, our results suggest that people possess insight, although relatively limited, into their FRA

    Image sensors for wave monitoring in shore protection: Characterization through a machine learning algorithm

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    Waves propagating on the water surface can be considered as propagating in a dispersive medium, where gravity and surface tension at the air–water interface act as restoring forces. The velocity at which energy is transported in water waves is defined by the group velocity. The paper reports the use of video‐camera observations to study the impact of water waves on an urban shore. The video‐monitoring system consists of two separate cameras equipped with progressive RGB CMOS sensors that allow 1080p HDTV video recording. The sensing system delivers video signals that are processed by a machine learning technique. The scope of the research is to identify features of water waves that cannot be normally observed. First, a conventional modelling was performed using data delivered by image sensors together with additional data such as temperature, and wind speed, measured with dedicated sensors. Stealth waves are detected, as are the inverting phenomena encompassed in waves. This latter phenomenon can be detected only through machine learning. This double approach allows us to prevent extreme events that can take place in offshore and onshore areas

    Performance of the Two Aerogel Cherenkov Detectors of the JLab Hall A Hadron Spectrometer

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    We report on the design and commissioning of two silica aerogel Cherenkov detectors with different refractive indices. In particular, extraordinary performance in terms of the number of detected photoelectrons was achieved through an appropriate choice of PMT type and reflector, along with some design considerations. After four years of operation, the number of detected photoelectrons was found to be noticeably reduced in both detectors as a result of contamination, yellowing, of the aerogel material. Along with the details of the set-up, we illustrate the characteristics of the detectors during different time periods and the probable causes of the contamination. In particular we show that the replacement of the contaminated aerogel and parts of the reflecting material has almost restored the initial performance of the detectors.Comment: 18 pages, 9 Figures, 4 Tables, 44 Reference

    Chemotherapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy: Which drugs can be safely used in the solid organ transplant recipients?

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    In solid organ transplant recipients, cancer is associated with worse prognosis than in the general population. Among the causes of increased cancer-associated mortality, are the limitations in selecting the optimal anticancer regimen in solid organ transplant recipients, because of the associated risks of graft toxicity and rejection, drug-to-drug interactions, reduced kidney or liver function, and patient frailty and comorbid conditions. The advent of immunotherapy has generated further challenges, mainly because checkpoint inhibitors increase the risk of rejection, which may have life-threatening consequences in recipients of life-saving organs. In general, there are no safe or unsafe anticancer drugs. Rather, the optimal choice of the anticancer regimen results from a careful risk/benefit assessment, from the awareness of potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug-to-drug interactions, and of the risk of drug overexposure in patients with kidney or liver dysfunction. In this review, we summarize general principles that may help the oncologists and transplant physicians in the multidisciplinary management of recipients of solid organ transplantation with cancer who are candidates for chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy

    Postural Control in Children with Cerebellar Ataxia

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    Controlling posture, i.e., governing the ensemble of involuntary muscular activities that manage body equilibrium, represents a demanding function in which the cerebellum plays a key role. Postural activities are particularly important during gait initiation when passing from quiet standing to locomotion. Indeed, several studies used such motor task for evaluating pathological conditions, including cerebellar disorders. The linkage between cerebellum maturation and the development of postural control has received less attention. Therefore, we evaluated postural control during quiet standing and gait initiation in children affected by a slow progressive generalized cerebellar atrophy (SlowP) or non-progressive vermian hypoplasia (Joubert syndrome, NonP), compared to that of healthy children (H). Despite the similar clinical evaluation of motor impairments in NonP and SlowP, only SlowP showed a less stable quiet standing and a shorter and slower first step than H. Moreover, a descriptive analysis of lower limb and back muscle activities suggested a more severe timing disruption in SlowP. Such differences might stem from the extent of cerebellar damage. However, literature reports that during childhood, neural plasticity of intact brain areas could compensate for cerebellar agenesis. We thus proposed that the difference might stem from disease progression, which contrasts the consolidation of compensatory strategies
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