669 research outputs found

### Partial Horn logic and cartesian categories

A logic is developed in which function symbols are allowed to represent partial functions. It has the usual rules of logic (in the form of a sequent calculus) except that the substitution rule has to be modified. It is developed here in its minimal form, with equality and conjunction, as âpartial Horn logicâ. Various kinds of logical theory are equivalent: partial Horn theories, âquasi-equationalâ theories (partial Horn theories without predicate symbols), cartesian theories and essentially algebraic theories. The logic is sound and complete with respect to models in , and sound with respect to models in any cartesian (finite limit) category. The simplicity of the quasi-equational form allows an easy predicative constructive proof of the free partial model theorem for cartesian theories: that if a theory morphism is given from one cartesian theory to another, then the forgetful (reduct) functor from one model category to the other has a left adjoint. Various examples of quasi-equational theory are studied, including those of cartesian categories and of other classes of categories. For each quasi-equational theory another, , is constructed, whose models are cartesian categories equipped with models of . Its initial model, the âclassifying categoryâ for , has properties similar to those of the syntactic category, but more precise with respect to strict cartesian functors

### Cumulative fatigue damage of stress below the fatigue limit in weldment steel under block loading

To investigate the cumulative fatigue damage below the fatigue limit of multipass weldment martensitic stainless steel, and to clarify the effect of cycle ratios and highâstress level in the statement, fatigue tests were conducted under constant and combined highâ and lowâstress amplitude relative to stress above and below the fatigue limit. The outcomes indicate that neither modified Miner's nor Haibach's approach provided accurate evaluation under repeated twoâstep amplitude loading. Moreover, effect of cycle ratios has been determined. Additionally, the cumulative fatigue damage saturated model is established and validated. Cumulative fatigue damage contributed by lowâstress below the fatigue limit in high stress of 700 MPa is higher than that with 650 MPa at identical conditions (fatigue limit 575 MPa). Thus, high stress affects fatigue damage behaviour below the fatigue limit. A new predicted approach has been proposed based on CortenâDolan law, whose accuracy and applicability have been proven

### 04 - Case studies : I SEE project

In this document we report the main research-based studies we carried out in order to monitor the impact of the I SEE modules on studentsâ learning and on studentsâ perception of the future. The case studies have been developed through the analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data collected by means of a multiplicity of tools: questionnaires, individual interviews, collective discussions, tutorials, audio/video records, specific grids and board diaries for observations. The specific tools for data collection have been chosen and designed to cover both individual development and collective dynamics. In order to guarantee the credibility, reliability and robustness of the data analysis and the results, a detailed description of the whole analytic work will be carried out and documented in this report for each case. Data have been collected during the two-round I SEE module implementations (âstart-up I SEE moduleâ O1 and the âI SEE modulesâ O2). The main results discussed here concern the data collected during the implementation of the start-up I SEE module (O1) in the Summer School (C1). In Chapter 3 we include the results about the analysis of data collected during the implementation of I SEE module on quantum computing (O2) in Finland; moreover, we refer here to the list of these developed at the University of Bologna and the University of Helsinki about the project. The analysis of the case studies translates into finding a way to not only explain what happens in the implementation of an I SEE module, but also what conditions are needed to overcome obstacles and maximise the probabilities of repeating successful experiences in different contexts. Moreover, the results allow to argue in deep detail what learning outcomes and skills can be developed through the implementation of the I SEE modules and how a teacher can reveal, monitor and evaluate them. The main results, indeed, of the whole process of investigation has been the list of the markers that can reveal the impact of studentsâ perception of the future (the widening and approaching markers) (see case study #1,2,3) and the markers that operationally define the future-scaffolding skills (see case study #3). The case studies are the basis for research papers that have been presented in national and international conferences and submitted to journals in science and mathematics education or to journals in the learning sciences. The published papers are reported in the Annexes

### Skills, attitudes and uptake of evidence-based practice: a cross-sectional study of chiropractors in the Swedish Chiropractic Association.

BackgroundEvidence-based practice (EBP) is integral to the delivery of high-quality health care. Chiropractic has been a licensed health profession in Sweden since 1989, but little is known of the uptake of EBP in this professional group. This study explored the self-reported skills, attitudes and uptake of EBP, and the enablers and barriers of EBP uptake, among licensed chiropractors in Sweden.MethodsLicensed chiropractors (nâ=â172) of the Swedish Chiropractic Association (Legitimerade Kiropraktorers Riksorganisation) were invited to participate in an anonymous online questionnaire, using the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude and Utilisation Survey (EBASE) in February 2019.ResultsFifty-six (33%) chiropractors completed the survey. Participants were predominantly male, aged 30-49âyears, held a Master's degree, and had received their highest qualification and practiced chiropractic for over a decade. Chiropractors rated their EBP skill-level mostly in the moderate to moderate-high range. The majority of chiropractors reported positive attitudes towards EBP, with most agreeing or strongly agreeing that EBP is necessary in the practice of chiropractic, and that EBP assists in making decisions about patient care. Chiropractors reported an average level of engagement in EBP activities. All participants indicated professional literature and research findings were useful in their day-to-day chiropractic practice. The main perceived enabler of EBP uptake was internet access in the workplace, whereas the main barrier to EBP uptake was lack of clinical evidence in chiropractic.ConclusionsParticipating chiropractors of the Swedish Chiropractic Association were generally favourable of EBP, though only reported modest levels of EBP-related skills and engagement in EBP activities. Our findings suggest future studies investigating interventions focussed on improving chiropractors' skills and uptake of EBP are warranted

### Investigating in-service failures of water pipes from a multiaxial notch fatigue point of view: A conceptual study

Many mechanisms and processes can cause deterioration and ultimately failure of water distribution pipes during in-service operation, amongst these is damage caused by metal fatigue. This paper summarises an attempt at formalising a novel methodology suitable for estimating the number of years taken for a through thickness fatigue crack to form in this complex scenario. The devised method is based on the so-called modified WoÂšhler curve method and can be applied to estimate fatigue damage of water pipes independently from the degree of multiaxiality and non-proportionality of the load history. The computational approach of the proposed fatigue life estimation technique makes full use of an incremental procedure: fatigue damage is evaluated year by year by assuming that all variable involved in the process can change over time. The detrimental effect of corrosion pits is directly accounted for by treating them as conventional notches whose size increases with time. Finally, by taking as reference information the number of years for a blowout hole to form, the proposed approach is used to show how the lifetime of grey cast iron pipes can be remarkably shortened by fatigue

### Inductive-Inductive Definitions

This article presents a new extension of inductive definitions, namely inductive-inductive definitions

### Fixed Effect Estimation of Large T Panel Data Models

This article reviews recent advances in fixed effect estimation of panel data models for long panels, where the number of time periods is relatively large. We focus on semiparametric models with unobserved individual and time effects, where the distribution of the outcome variable conditional on covariates and unobserved effects is specified parametrically, while the distribution of the unobserved effects is left unrestricted. Compared to existing reviews on long panels (Arellano and Hahn 2007; a section in Arellano and Bonhomme 2011) we discuss models with both individual and time effects, split-panel Jackknife bias corrections, unbalanced panels, distribution and quantile effects, and other extensions. Understanding and correcting the incidental parameter bias caused by the estimation of many fixed effects is our main focus, and the unifying theme is that the order of this bias is given by the simple formula p/n for all models discussed, with p the number of estimated parameters and n the total sample size.Comment: 40 pages, 1 tabl
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