25 research outputs found

    Phase Singularities to Polarization Singularities

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    Polarization singularities are superpositions of orbital angular momentum (OAM) states in orthogonal circular polarization basis. The intrinsic OAM of light beams arises due to the helical wavefronts of phase singularities. In phase singularities, circulating phase gradients and, in polarization singularities, circulating Ď•12 Stokes phase gradients are present. At the phase and polarization singularities, undefined quantities are the phase and Ď•12 Stokes phase, respectively. Conversion of circulating phase gradient into circulating Stokes phase gradient reveals the connection between phase (scalar) and polarization (vector) singularities. We demonstrate this by theoretically and experimentally generating polarization singularities using phase singularities. Furthermore, the relation between scalar fields and Stokes fields and the singularities in each of them is discussed. This paper is written as a tutorial-cum-review-type article keeping in mind the beginners and researchers in other areas, yet many of the concepts are given novel explanations by adopting different approaches from the available literature on this subject

    Imaging Sensor-Based High-Throughput Measurement of Biomass Using Machine Learning Models in Rice

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    Phenomics technologies have advanced rapidly in the recent past for precision phenotyping of diverse crop plants. High-throughput phenotyping using imaging sensors has been proven to fetch more informative data from a large population of genotypes than the traditional destructive phenotyping methodologies. It provides accurate, high-dimensional phenome-wide big data at an ultra-super spatial and temporal resolution. Biomass is an important plant phenotypic trait that can reflect the agronomic performance of crop plants in terms of growth and yield. Several image-derived features such as area, projected shoot area, projected shoot area with height constant, estimated bio-volume, etc., and machine learning models (single or multivariate analysis) are reported in the literature for use in the non-invasive prediction of biomass in diverse crop plants. However, no studies have reported the best suitable image-derived features for accurate biomass prediction, particularly for fully grown rice plants (70DAS). In this present study, we analyzed a subset of rice recombinant inbred lines (RILs) which were developed from a cross between rice varieties BVD109 Ă— IR20 and grown in sufficient (control) and deficient soil nitrogen (N stress) conditions. Images of plants were acquired using three different sensors (RGB, IR, and NIR) just before destructive plant sampling for the quantitative estimation of fresh (FW) and dry weight (DW). A total of 67 image-derived traits were extracted and classified into four groups, viz., geometric-, color-, IR- and NIR-related traits. We identified a multimodal trait feature, the ratio of PSA and NIR grey intensity as estimated from RGB and NIR sensors, as a novel trait for predicting biomass in rice. Among the 16 machine learning models tested for predicting biomass, the Bayesian regularized neural network (BRNN) model showed the maximum predictive power (R2 = 0.96 and 0.95 for FW and DW of biomass, respectively) with the lowest prediction error (RMSE and bias value) in both control and N stress environments. Thus, biomass can be accurately predicted by measuring novel image-based parameters and neural network-based machine learning models in rice

    Near index matching enables solid diffractive optical element fabrication via additive manufacturing

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    Abstract Diffractive optical elements (DOEs) have a wide range of applications in optics and photonics, thanks to their capability to perform complex wavefront shaping in a compact form. However, widespread applicability of DOEs is still limited, because existing fabrication methods are cumbersome and expensive. Here, we present a simple and cost-effective fabrication approach for solid, high-performance DOEs. The method is based on conjugating two nearly refractive index-matched solidifiable transparent materials. The index matching allows for extreme scaling up of the elements in the axial dimension, which enables simple fabrication of a template using commercially available 3D printing at tens-of-micrometer resolution. We demonstrated the approach by fabricating and using DOEs serving as microlens arrays, vortex plates, including for highly sensitive applications such as vector beam generation and super-resolution microscopy using MINSTED, and phase-masks for three-dimensional single-molecule localization microscopy. Beyond the advantage of making DOEs widely accessible by drastically simplifying their production, the method also overcomes difficulties faced by existing methods in fabricating highly complex elements, such as high-order vortex plates, and spectrum-encoding phase masks for microscopy
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