102 research outputs found

    Fermi surfaces of single layer dielectrics on transition metals

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    Single sheets of hexagonal boron nitride on transition metals provide a model system for single layer dielectrics. The progress in the understanding of h-BN layers on transition metals of the last 10 years are shortly reviewed. Particular emphasis lies on the boron nitride nanomesh on Rh(111), which is a corrugated single sheet of h-BN, where the corrugation imposes strong lateral electric fields. Fermi surface maps of h-BN/Rh(111) and Rh(111) are compared. A h-BN layer on Rh(111) introduces no new bands at the Fermi energy, which is expected for an insulator. The lateral electric fields of h-BN nanomesh violate the conservation law for parallel momentum in photoemission and smear out the momentum distribution curves on the Fermi surface.Comment: 14 pages, 6 figures, 1 table, 1 equation, Accepted for publication in the Special Surface Science issue in honor of Gerhard Ertl's Nobel Priz

    Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences

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    ABSTRACT Polycrystalline thin films (PTF) of p-WSe2, p-WS2, and p-MoSe2 have been prepared and characterized with respect to their photoelectrochemical properties, p-WS2 showed the highest open-circuit photovoltages and the highest conversion efficiencies in various redox couples. In addition, the band structure of all the films has been determined experimentally and compared to those reported for single crystals. Over the last two decades a great deal of interest has developed in the area of photoelectrochemistry, particularly in the application of photoelectrochemical systems to the problem of solar energy conversion and storage. The interest is to develop new energy sources to supplement and eventually replace fossil fuels. The first photoelectrochemical experiment was performed in 1839 by Becquerel (1), who demonstrated that a voltage and current are generated when a silver chloride electrode, immersed in an electrolytic solution and connected to a counterelectrode, is illuminated. Although the concept of a semiconductor did not exist at that time, it is now clear that the electrode which Becquerel used had semiconducting properties. In 1955, Brattain and Garett (2) used germanium as the first semiconductor electrode in photoelectrochemistry. Since then, the knowledge of semiconductors has grown steadily. Fujishima and Honda (3) were the first to point out the potential application of photoelectrochemical systems for solar energy conversion and storage. They demonstrated that the photo-oxidation of water to 02 was possible by utilizing an n-type semiconducting titanium dioxide photoanode. Since then, there has been a large and rapidly growing international interest in the study of photoelectrochemistry of semiconductors (4). The effective use of solar energy in photovoltaic or photoelectrochemical applications depends in part on the development of materials that can show high conversion efficiencies and long-term stability under operation. In ad-*Electrochemical Society Active Member. **Electrochemical Society Student Member. dition, the desirable materials should have a bandgap that closely matches the solar spectrum and be made of readily available and inexpensive materials. We have focused our attention on the transition metal dichalcogenides (e.g., WSe2, WS2, MoSe2, and others), also known as layered or d-d semiconductors. Tributsch's (5, 6) pioneering work on the use of these materials has stimulated intensive research in this area, and single Crystals of a number of materials have been studied extensively in both aqueous and nonaqueous solvents and in photovoltaic and photoelectrosynthetic cells. The advantages of using these materials are that they have bandgaps (1.1-1.6 eV) that closely match the solar spectrum and exhibit high conversion efficiencies as single crystals. In addition, they can achieve long-term stability due to the fact that the transitions are localized in the nonbonding d orbitals of the metal. These materials consist of metal dichalcogenide sandwiches (e.g., Se-W-Se) held together by van der Waals forces. The fact that there is strong covalent bonding within the layers, but only weak interactions between layers, makes these materials highly anisotropic in their properties. For example, the surface parallel to the C axis (IIC) is more conducting than the surface perpendicular to the C axis (• Therefore, edges and surface imperfections on the surface parallel to the C axis act as efficient recombination centers for photogenerated carriers or products (7

    Coadsorption of Nitriles and Co On Cu-Zsm-5: An In Situ FTIR Spectroscopic Study

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    The catalytic opportunity that Cu-ZSM-5 has for potentially reducing NO{sub x} emission through reduction by hydrocarbons has prompted an enormous international examination of this material and the chemical properties it displays. The coadsorption of acetonitrile (ACN) or deuterated acetonitrile (dACN) with CO at Cu-ZSM-5 reveals several interesting features concerning the partial valency of Cu. Specifically, CO binds at Cu{sup +1} and Cu{degree} centers (in the absence of preadsorbed ACN) and exhibits C-O stretching frequencies of 2,157 cm{sup {minus}1} and 2,112 cm{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Carbon monoxide readily adsorbs at an ACN (or dACN) saturated Cu-ZSM-5 and exhibits a C-O stretch of 2,122 cm{sup {minus}1}, a value more consistent with a partially reduced Cu{sup +1} center. Furthermore, the IR cross section for the CN stretch in a number of nitriles (ACN, dACN, and benzonitrile) coadsorbed with CO displays interesting effects attributed to rehybridization and changes in CN dipole moment