98 research outputs found

    Identifying Target Market Areas for Major League Soccer Using GIS

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    Since its inaugural season in 1996, Major League Soccer (MLS) has developed steadily, growing from ten franchises at its inception to eighteen today, with plans to expand to twenty over the next two years. MLS was faced with some critical marketing questions to ensure that growth was coupled with stability. The League desired to know what types of neighborhoods their fans lived in and how far the fans were willing to travel to matches. They also wished to know where they might find similar neighborhoods to these, where they could market more effectively. Geographic information systems (GIS) were utilized with a year’s season ticket sales for a single MLS club, Chivas USA, to conduct analysis. Demographic and socioeconomic information from Esri’s Business Analyst was used, and research yielded several conclusions. These included a profile of the season-ticket holding neighborhoods, as well as suitable areas for marketing based on this profile. Further analysis of total MLS customers sales in southern California covering a four year period, as well as the general population in the same region, substantiated these conclusions. The methodology used for this project can be used for further MLS (or other sports) teams’ marketing strategies

    Evaluation of the effects of sodium‚Äďglucose co‚Äźtransporter 2 inhibition with empagliflozin on morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction: rationale for and design of the EMPEROR‚ÄźPreserved Trial

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    Background: The principal biological processes that characterize heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are systemic inflammation, epicardial adipose tissue accumulation, coronary microcirculatory rarefaction, myocardial fibrosis and vascular stiffness; the resulting impairment of left ventricular and aortic distensibility (especially when accompanied by impaired glomerular function and sodium retention) causes increases in cardiac filling pressures and exertional dyspnoea despite the relative preservation of left ventricular ejection fraction. Independently of their actions on blood glucose, sodium‚Äďglucose co‚Äźtransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors exert a broad range of biological effects (including actions to inhibit cardiac inflammation and fibrosis, antagonize sodium retention and improve glomerular function) that can ameliorate the pathophysiological derangements in HFpEF. Such SGLT2 inhibitors exert favourable effects in experimental models of HFpEF and have been found in large‚Äźscale trials to reduce the risk for serious heart failure events in patients with type‚ÄČ2 diabetes, many of whom were retrospectively identified as having HFpEF. Study design: The EMPEROR‚ÄźPreserved Trial is enrolling ‚Čą5750 patients with HFpEF (ejection fraction >40%), with and without type 2 diabetes, who are randomized to receive placebo or empagliflozin 10 mg/day, which is added to all appropriate treatments for HFpEF and co‚Äźmorbidities. Study aims: The primary endpoint is the time‚Äźto‚Äźfirst‚Äźevent analysis of the combined risk for cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure. The trial will also evaluate the effects of empagliflozin on renal function, cardiovascular death, all‚Äźcause mortality and recurrent hospitalization events, and will assess a wide range of biomarkers that reflect important pathophysiological mechanisms that may drive the evolution of HFpEF. The EMPEROR‚ÄźPreserved Trial is well positioned to determine if empagliflozin can have a meaningful impact on the course of HFpEF, a disorder for which there are currently few therapeutic options

    Evaluation of the effect of sodium‚Äďglucose co‚Äźtransporter 2 inhibition with empagliflozin on morbidity and mortality of patients with chronic heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction: rationale for and design of the EMPEROR‚ÄźReduced trial

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    Drugs that inhibit the sodium‚Äďglucose co‚Äźtransporter 2 (SGLT2) have been shown to reduce the risk of hospitalizations for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes. In populations that largely did not have heart failure at the time of enrolment, empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin decreased the risk of serious new‚Äźonset heart failure events by ‚Čą30%. In addition, in the EMPA‚ÄźREG OUTCOME trial, empagliflozin reduced the risk of both pump failure and sudden deaths, the two most common modes of death among patients with heart failure. In none of the three trials could the benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors on heart failure be explained by the actions of these drugs as diuretics or anti‚Äźhyperglycaemic agents. These observations raise the possibility that SGLT2 inhibitors could reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with established heart failure, including those without diabetes. The EMPEROR‚ÄźReduced trial is enrolling ‚Čą3600 patients with heart failure and a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (‚ȧ‚ÄČ40%), half of whom are expected not to have diabetes. Patients are being randomized to placebo or empagliflozin 10 mg daily, which is added to all appropriate treatment with inhibitors of the renin‚Äďangiotensin system and neprilysin, beta‚Äźblockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. The primary endpoint is the time‚Äźto‚Äźfirst event analysis of the combined risk of cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure, but the trial will also evaluate the effects of empagliflozin on renal function, cardiovascular death, all‚Äźcause mortality, and recurrent hospitalization events. By adjusting eligibility based on natriuretic peptide levels to the baseline ejection fraction, the trial will preferentially enrol high‚Äźrisk patients. A large proportion of the participants is expected to have an ejection fraction <‚ÄČ30%, and the estimated annual event rate is expected to be at least 15%. The EMPEROR‚ÄźReduced trial is well‚Äźpositioned to determine if the addition of empagliflozin can add meaningfully to current approaches that have established benefits in the treatment of chronic heart failure with left ventricular systolic dysfunction

    2017 HRS/EHRA/ECAS/APHRS/SOLAECE expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation: executive summary.

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    2017 HRS/EHRA/ECAS/APHRS/SOLAECE expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation: executive summary.

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    withdrawn 2017 hrs ehra ecas aphrs solaece expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation

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    Genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in a UK university identifies dynamics of transmission

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    AbstractUnderstanding SARS-CoV-2 transmission in higher education settings is important to limit spread between students, and into at-risk populations. In this study, we sequenced 482 SARS-CoV-2 isolates from the University of Cambridge from 5 October to 6 December 2020. We perform a detailed phylogenetic comparison with 972 isolates from the surrounding community, complemented with epidemiological and contact tracing data, to determine transmission dynamics. We observe limited viral introductions into the university; the majority of student cases were linked to a single genetic cluster, likely following social gatherings at a venue outside the university. We identify considerable onward transmission associated with student accommodation and courses; this was effectively contained using local infection control measures and following a national lockdown. Transmission clusters were largely segregated within the university or the community. Our study highlights key determinants of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and effective interventions in a higher education setting that will inform public health policy during pandemics.</jats:p
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