1,975 research outputs found

    Inter-rater reliability of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX): comparative data from non-clinician respondents ‚Äď all raters are not equal

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    Primary objective: The Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) is used to obtain information about executive and emotional problems after neuropathology. The DEX is self-completed by the patient (DEX-S) and an independent rater such as a family member (DEX-I). This study examined the level of inter-rater agreement between either two or three non-clinician raters on the DEX-I in order to establish the reliability of DEX-I ratings. Methods and procedures: Family members and/or carers of 60 people with mixed neuropathology completed the DEX-I. For each patient, DEX-I ratings were obtained from either two or three raters who knew the person well prior to brain injury. Main outcomes and results: We obtained two independent-ratings for 60 patients and three independent-ratings for 36 patients. Intra-class correlations revealed that there was only a modest level of agreement for items, subscale and total DEX scores between raters for their particular family member. Several individual DEX items had low reliability and ratings for the emotion sub-scale had the lowest level of agreement. Conclusions: Independent DEX ratings completed by two or more non-clinician raters show only moderate correlation. Suggestions are made for improving the reliability of DEX-I ratings.</p

    OH Production from the Photolysis of Isoprene-derived Peroxy Radicals: Cross-sections, quantum yields and atmospheric implications

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    In environments with high concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds and low concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), significant discrepancies have been found between measured and modeled concentrations of hydroxyl radical (OH). The photolysis of peroxy radicals from isoprene (HO-Iso-O2) in the near ultraviolet represents a potential source of OH in these environments, yet has not been considered in atmospheric models. This paper presents measurements of the absorption cross-sections for OH formation (ŌÉRO2,OH) from the photolysis of HO-Iso-O2 at wavelengths from 310‚Äď362.5 nm via direct observation by laser-induced fluorescence of the additional OH produced following laser photolysis of HO-Iso-O2. Values of ŌÉRO2,OH for HO-Iso-O2 ranged from (6.0 ¬Ī 1.6) √ó 10-20 cm2 molecule-1 at 310 nm to (0.5 ¬Ī 0.15) √ó 10-20 cm2 molecule-1 at 362.5 nm. OH photodissociation yields from HO-Iso-O2 photolysis, ŌēOH,RO2, were determined via comparison of the measured values of ŌÉRO2,OH to the total absorption cross-sections for HO-Iso-O2 (ŌÉRO2), which were obtained using a newly-constructed spectrometer. ŌēOH,RO2 was determined to be 0.13 ¬Ī 0.037 at wavelengths from 310‚Äď362.5 nm. To determine the impact of HO-Iso-O2 photolysis on atmospheric OH concentrations, a modeling case-study for a high-isoprene, low-NOx environment (namely, the 2008 Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a South-East Asian Tropical Rainforest (OP-3) field campaign, conducted in Borneo) was undertaken using the detailed Master Chemical Mechanism. The model calculated that the inclusion of HO-Iso-O2 photolysis in the model had increased the OH concentration by only 1% on average from 10:00‚Äď16:00 local time. Thus, HO-Iso-O2 photolysis alone is insufficient to resolve the discrepancy seen between measured OH concentrations and those predicted by atmospheric chemistry models in such environments

    Exercise interventions for people undergoing multimodal cancer treatment that includes surgery

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    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine the effect of exercise interventions for people undergoing multimodal treatment including surgery on physical fitness, safety and feasibility, health-related quality of life and other important health outcomes

    Physical activity levels in locally advanced rectal cancer patients following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and an exercise training programme before surgery: a pilot study

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    Background: The aim of this pilot study was to measure changes in physical activity level (PAL) variables, as well as sleep duration and efficiency in people with locally advanced rectal cancer (1) before and after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and (2) after participating in a pre-operative 6-week in-hospital exercise training programme, following neoadjuvant CRT prior to major surgery, compared to a usual care control group.Methods: We prospectively studied 39 consecutive participants (27 males). All participants completed standardised neoadjuvant CRT: 23 undertook a 6-week in-hospital exercise training programme following neoadjuvant CRT. These were compared to 16 contemporaneous non-randomised participants (usual care control group). All participants underwent a continuous 72-h period of PA monitoring by SenseWear biaxial accelerometer at baseline, immediately following neoadjuvant CRT (week 0), and at week 6 (following the exercise training programme).Results: Of 39 recruited participants, 23 out of 23 (exercise) and 10 out of 16 (usual care control) completed the study. In all participants (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ33), there was a significant reduction from baseline (pre-CRT) to week 0 (post-CRT) in daily step count: median (IQR) 4966 (4435) vs. 3044 (3265); p‚ÄČ&lt;‚ÄČ0.0001, active energy expenditure (EE) (kcal): 264 (471) vs. 154 (164); p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.003, and metabolic equivalent (MET) (1.3 (0.6) vs. 1.2 (0.3); p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.010). There was a significant improvement in sleep efficiency (%) between week 0 and week 6 in the exercise group compared to the usual care control group (80 (13) vs. 78 (15) compared to (69 ((24) vs. 76 (20); p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.022), as well as in sleep duration and lying down time (p‚ÄČ&lt;‚ÄČ0.05) while those in active EE (kcal) (152 (154) vs. 434 (658) compared to (244 (198) vs. 392 (701) or in MET (1.3 (0.4) vs. 1.5 (0.5) compared to (1.1 (0.2) vs. 1.5 (0.5) were also of importance but did not reach statistical significance (p‚ÄČ&gt;‚ÄČ0.05). An apparent improvement in daily step count and overall PAL in the exercise group was not statistically significant.Conclusions: PAL variables, daily step count, EE and MET significantly reduced following neoadjuvant CRT in all participants. A 6-week pre-operative in-hospital exercise training programme improved sleep efficiency, sleep duration and lying down time when compared to participants receiving usual care

    Higgs Mass from D-Terms: a Litmus Test

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    We explore supersymmetric theories in which the Higgs mass is boosted by the non-decoupling D-terms of an extended U(1)XU(1)_X gauge symmetry, defined here to be a general linear combination of hypercharge, baryon number, and lepton number. Crucially, the gauge coupling, gXg_X, is bounded from below to accommodate the Higgs mass, while the quarks and leptons are required by gauge invariance to carry non-zero charge under U(1)XU(1)_X. This induces an irreducible rate, ŌÉ\sigmaBR, for pp‚ÜíX‚Üí‚Ąď‚Ąďpp \rightarrow X \rightarrow \ell\ell relevant to existing and future resonance searches, and gives rise to higher dimension operators that are stringently constrained by precision electroweak measurements. Combined, these bounds define a maximally allowed region in the space of observables, (ŌÉ\sigmaBR, mXm_X), outside of which is excluded by naturalness and experimental limits. If natural supersymmetry utilizes non-decoupling D-terms, then the associated XX boson can only be observed within this window, providing a model independent `litmus test' for this broad class of scenarios at the LHC. Comparing limits, we find that current LHC results only exclude regions in parameter space which were already disfavored by precision electroweak data.Comment: 7 pages, 9 figure

    Measuring maternal mortality : an overview of opportunities and options for developing countries

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    Background:There is currently an unprecedented expressed need and demand for estimates of maternal mortality in developing countries. This has been stimulated in part by the creation of a Millennium Development Goal that will be judged partly on the basis of reductions in maternal mortality by 2015. Methods: Since the launch of the Safe Motherhood Initiative in 1987, new opportunities for data capture have arisen and new methods have been developed, tested and used. This paper provides a pragmatic overview of these methods and the optimal measurement strategies for different developing country contexts. Results: There are significant recent advances in the measurement of maternal mortality, yet also room for further improvement, particularly in assessing the magnitude and direction of biases and their implications for different data uses. Some of the innovations in measurement provide efficient mechanisms for gathering the requisite primary data at a reasonably low cost. No method, however, has zero costs. Investment is needed in measurement strategies for maternal mortality suited to the needs and resources of a country, and which also strengthen the technical capacity to generate and use credible estimates. Conclusion: Ownership of information is necessary for it to be acted upon: what you count is what you do. Difficulties with measurement must not be allowed to discourage efforts to reduce maternal mortality. Countries must be encouraged and enabled to count maternal deaths and act.WJG is funded partially by the University of Aberdeen. OMRC is partially funded by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. CS and SA are partially funded by Johns Hopkins University. CAZ is funded by the Health Metrics Network at the World Health Organization. WJG, OMRC, CS and SA are also partially supported through an international research program, Immpact, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Department for International Development, the European Commission and USAID

    Development and first validation of a patient-reported experience measure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (PREM-C9).

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    We developed a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient-reported experience measure (PREM-C9). 174 patients with COPD (86 [49%] with a confirmed diagnosis and 88 [51%] with a self-reported diagnosis of COPD) completed a 38-item list, COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Hierarchical and Rasch analysis produced a 9-item list (PREM-C9). It demonstrated fit to the Rasch model (Ōá¬≤ p=0.33) and correlated moderately with CAT (r=0.42), HAD-anxiety (r=0.30) and HAD-depression (r=0.41) (p<0.05). A substudy confirmed its ability to detect change prepulmonary and postpulmonary rehabilitation. The PREM-C9 is a simple, valid measure of experience of patients living with COPD, validated in this study population with mild to very severe disease; it may be a useful measure in research and clinical audits

    The Tevatron at the Frontier of Dark Matter Direct Detection

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    Direct detection of dark matter (DM) requires an interaction of dark matter particles with nucleons. The same interaction can lead to dark matter pair production at a hadron collider, and with the addition of initial state radiation this may lead to mono-jet signals. Mono-jet searches at the Tevatron can thus place limits on DM direct detection rates. We study these bounds both in the case where there is a contact interaction between DM and the standard model and where there is a mediator kinematically accessible at the Tevatron. We find that in many cases the Tevatron provides the current best limit, particularly for light dark matter, below 5 GeV, and for spin dependent interactions. Non-standard dark matter candidates are also constrained. The introduction of a light mediator significantly weakens the collider bound. A direct detection discovery that is in apparent conflict with mono-jet limits will thus point to a new light state coupling the standard model to the dark sector. Mono-jet searches with more luminosity and including the spectrum shape in the analysis can improve the constraints on DM-nucleon scattering cross section.Comment: 20 pages, 8 figures, final version in JHE

    Exercise interventions for people undergoing multimodal cancer treatment that includes surgery

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    BackgroundPeople undergoing multimodal cancer treatment are at an increased risk of adverse events. Physical fitness significantly reduces following cancer treatment, which is related to poor postoperative outcome. Exercise training can stimulate skeletal muscle adaptations, such as increased mitochondrial content and improved oxygen uptake capacity may contribute to improved physical fitness.ObjectivesTo determine the effects of exercise interventions for people undergoing multimodal treatment for cancer, including surgery, on physical fitness, safety, health‚Äźrelated quality of life (HRQoL), fatigue, and postoperative outcomes.Search methodsWe searched electronic databases of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, SPORTDiscus, and trial registries up to October 2018.Selection criteriaWe included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the effects of exercise training with usual care, on physical fitness, safety, HRQoL, fatigue, and postoperative outcomes in people undergoing multimodal cancer treatment, including surgery.Data collection and analysisTwo review authors independently selected studies, performed the data extraction, assessed the risk of bias, and rated the quality of the studies using Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. We pooled data for meta‚Äźanalyses, where possible, and reported these as mean differences using the random‚Äźeffects model.Main resultsEleven RCTs were identified involving 1067 participants; 568 were randomly allocated to an exercise intervention and 499 to a usual care control group. The majority of participants received treatment for breast cancer (73%). Due to the nature of the intervention, it was not possible to blind the participants or personnel delivering the intervention. The risk of detection bias was either high or unclear in some cases, whilst most other domains were rated as low risk. The included studies were of moderate to very low‚Äźcertainty evidence. Pooled data demonstrated that exercise training may have little or no difference on physical fitness (VO2 max) compared to usual care (mean difference (MD) 0.05 L/min‚Äź1, 95% confidence interval (CI) ‚Äź0.03 to 0.13; I2 = 0%; 2 studies, 381 participants; low‚Äźcertainty evidence). Included studies also showed in terms of adverse effects (safety), that it may be of benefit to exercise (8 studies, 507 participants; low‚Äźcertainty evidence). Furthermore, exercise training probably made little or no difference on HRQoL (EORTC global health status subscale) compared to usual care (MD 2.29, 95% CI ‚Äź1.06 to 5.65; I2 = 0%; 3 studies, 472 participants; moderate‚Äźcertainty evidence). However, exercise training probably reduces fatigue (multidimensional fatigue inventory) compared to usual care (MD ‚Äź1.05, 95% CI ‚Äź1.83 to ‚Äź0.28; I2 = 0%; 3 studies, 449 participants moderate‚Äźcertainty evidence). No studies reported postoperative outcomes.Authors' conclusionsThe findings should be interpreted with caution in view of the low number of studies, the overall low‚Äźcertainty of the combined evidence, and the variation in included cancer types (mainly people with breast cancer), treatments, exercise interventions, and outcomes. Exercise training may, or may not, confer modest benefit on physical fitness and HRQoL. Limited evidence suggests that exercise training is probably not harmful and probably reduces fatigue. These findings highlight the need for more RCTs, particularly in the neoadjuvant setting

    Implications of a High-Mass Diphoton Resonance for Heavy Quark Searches

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    Heavy vector-like quarks coupled to a scalar SS will induce a coupling of this scalar to gluons and possibly (if electrically charged) photons. The decay of the heavy quark into SqSq, with qq being a Standard Model quark, provides, if kinematically allowed, new channels for heavy quark searches. Inspired by naturalness considerations, we consider the case of a vector-like partner of the top quark. For illustration, we show that a singlet partner can be searched for at the 13‚ÄČ\,TeV LHC through its decay into a scalar resonance in the 2ő≥+‚Ąď+X2\gamma+\ell + X final states, especially if the diphoton branching ratio of the scalar SS is further enhanced by the contribution of non coloured particles. We then show that conventional heavy quark searches are also sensitive to this new decay mode, when SS decays hadronically, by slightly tightening the current selection cuts. Finally, we comment about the possibility of disentangling, by scrutinising appropriate kinematic distributions, heavy quark decays to StSt from other standard decay modes.Comment: 8 pages, 3 figures and 1 table; v3: typos fixed. Matches published versio
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