171 research outputs found

    Identification of two-dimensional pantographic structure via a linear D4 orthotropic second gradient elastic model

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    A linear elastic second gradient orthotropic two-dimensional solid that is invariant under (Formula presented.) rotation and for mirror transformation is considered. Such anisotropy is the most general for pantographic structures that are composed of two identical orthogonal families of fibers. It is well known in the literature that the corresponding strain energy depends on nine constitutive parameters: three parameters related to the first gradient part of the strain energy and six parameters related to the second gradient part of the strain energy. In this paper, analytical solutions for simple problems, which are here referred to the heavy sheet, to the nonconventional bending, and to the trapezoidal cases, are developed and presented. On the basis of such analytical solutions, gedanken experiments were developed in such a way that the whole set of the nine constitutive parameters is completely characterized in terms of the materials that the fibers are made of (i.e., of the Young’s modulus of the fiber materials), of their cross sections (i.e., of the area and of the moment of inertia of the fiber cross sections), and of the distance between the nearest pivots. On the basis of these considerations, a remarkable form of the strain energy is derived in terms of the displacement fields that closely resembles the strain energy of simple Euler beams. Numerical simulations confirm the validity of the presented results. Classic bone-shaped deformations are derived in standard bias numerical tests and the presence of a floppy mode is also made numerically evident in the present continuum model. Finally, we also show that the largeness of the boundary layer depends on the moment of inertia of the fibers

    Gedanken experiments for the determination of two-dimensional linear second gradient elasticity coefficients

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    In the present paper, a two-dimensional solid consisting of a linear elastic isotropic material, for which the deformation energy depends on the second gradient of the displacement, is considered. The strain energy is demonstrated to depend on 6 constitutive parameters: the 2 LamŽe constants (λ and Ό) and 4 more parameters (instead of 5 as it is in the 3D-case). Analytical solutions for classical problems such as heavy sheet, bending and flexure are provided. The idea is very simple: The solutions of the corresponding problem of first gradient classical case are imposed, and the corresponding forces, double forces and wedge forces are found. On the basis of such solutions, a method is outlined, which is able to identify the six constitutive parameters. Ideal (or Gedanken) experiments are designed in order to write equations having as unknowns the six constants and as known terms the values of suitable experimental measurements

    A 1D continuum model for beams with pantographic microstructure: asymptotic micro-macro identification and numerical results

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    In the standard asymptotic micro-macro identification theory, starting from a De Saint-Venant cylinder, it is possible to prove that, in the asymptotic limit, only flexible, inextensible, beams can be obtained at the macro-level. In the present paper we address the following problem: is it possible to find a microstructure producing in the limit, after an asymptotic micro-macro identification procedure, a continuum macro-model of a beam which can be both extensible and flexible? We prove that under certain hypotheses, exploiting the peculiar features of a pantographic microstructure, this is possible. Among the most remarkable features of the resulting model we find that the deformation energy is not of second gradient type only because it depends, like in the Euler beam model, upon the Lagrangian curvature, i.e. the projection of the second gradient of the placement function upon the normal vector to the deformed line, but also because it depends upon the projection of the second gradient of the placement on the tangent vector to the deformed line, which is the elongation gradient. Thus, a richer set of boundary conditions can be prescribed for the pantographic beam model. Phase transition and elastic softening are exhibited as well. Using the resulting planar 1D continuum limit homogenized macro-model, by means of FEM analyses, we show some equilibrium shapes exhibiting highly non-standard features. Finally, we conceive that pantographic beams may be used as basic elements in double scale metamaterials to be designed in future

    Wave propagation in relaxed micromorphic continua: modelling metamaterials with frequency band-gaps

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    In this paper the relaxed micromorphic model proposed in [Patrizio Neff, Ionel-Dumitrel Ghiba, Angela Madeo, Luca Placidi, Giuseppe Rosi. A unifying perspective: the relaxed linear micromorphic continuum, submitted, 2013, arXiv:1308.3219; and Ionel-Dumitrel Ghiba, Patrizio Neff, Angela Madeo, Luca Placidi, Giuseppe Rosi. The relaxed linear micromorphic continuum: existence, uniqueness and continuous dependence in dynamics, submitted, 2013, arXiv:1308.3762] has been used to study wave propagation in unbounded continua with microstructure. By studying dispersion relations for the considered relaxed medium, we are able to disclose precise frequency ranges (band-gaps) for which propagation of waves cannot occur. These dispersion relations are strongly nonlinear so giving rise to a macroscopic dispersive behavior of the considered medium. We prove that the presence of band-gaps is related to a unique elastic coefficient, the so-called Cosserat couple modulus ÎŒc\mu_{c}, which is also responsible for the loss of symmetry of the Cauchy force stress tensor. This parameter can be seen as the trigger of a bifurcation phenomenon since the fact of slightly changing its value around a given threshold drastically changes the observed response of the material with respect to wave propagation. We finally show that band-gaps cannot be accounted for by classical micromorphic models as well as by Cosserat and second gradient ones. The potential fields of application of the proposed relaxed model are manifold, above all for what concerns the conception of new engineering materials to be used for vibration control and stealth technology

    A unifying perspective: the relaxed linear micromorphic continuum

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    We formulate a relaxed linear elastic micromorphic continuum model with symmetric Cauchy force-stresses and curvature contribution depending only on the micro-dislocation tensor. Our relaxed model is still able to fully describe rotation of the microstructure and to predict non-polar size-effects. It is intended for the homogenized description of highly heterogeneous, but non polar materials with microstructure liable to slip and fracture. In contrast to classical linear micromorphic models our free energy is not uniformly pointwise positive definite in the control of the independent constitutive variables. The new relaxed micromorphic model supports well-posedness results for the dynamic and static case. There, decisive use is made of new coercive inequalities recently proved by Neff, Pauly and Witsch and by Bauer, Neff, Pauly and Starke. The new relaxed micromorphic formulation can be related to dislocation dynamics, gradient plasticity and seismic processes of earthquakes. It unifies and simplifies the understanding of the linear micromorphic models

    A continuum-mechanical model for the flow of anisotropic polar ice

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    In order to study the mechanical behaviour of polar ice masses, the method of continuum mechanics is used. The newly developed CAFFE model (Continuum-mechanical, Anisotropic Flow model, based on an anisotropic Flow Enhancement factor) is described, which comprises an anisotropic flow law as well as a fabric evolution equation. The flow law is an extension of the isotropic Glen's flow law, in which anisotropy enters via an enhancement factor that depends on the deformability of the polycrystal. The fabric evolution equation results from an orientational mass balance and includes constitutive relations for grain rotation and recrystallization. The CAFFE model fulfills all the fundamental principles of classical continuum mechanics, is sufficiently simple to allow numerical implementations in ice-flow models and contains only a limited number of free parameters. The applicability of the CAFFE model is demonstrated by a case study for the site of the EPICA (European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica) ice core in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica.Comment: 12 pages, 11 figures, 1 tabl