1,953 research outputs found

### Analytic approximation and an improved method for computing the stress-energy of quantized scalar fields in Robertson-Walker spacetimes

An improved method is given for the computation of the stress-energy tensor
of a quantized scalar field using adiabatic regularization. The method works
for fields with arbitrary mass and curvature coupling in Robertson-Walker
spacetimes and is particularly useful for spacetimes with compact spatial
sections. For massless fields it yields an analytic approximation for the
stress-energy tensor that is similar in nature to those obtained previously for
massless fields in static spacetimes.Comment: RevTeX, 8 pages, no figure

### Conformal Scalar Propagation on the Schwarzschild Black-Hole Geometry

The vacuum activity generated by the curvature of the Schwarzschild
black-hole geometry close to the event horizon is studied for the case of a
massless, conformal scalar field. The associated approximation to the unknown,
exact propagator in the Hartle-Hawking vacuum state for small values of the
radial coordinate above $r = 2M$ results in an analytic expression which
manifestly features its dependence on the background space-time geometry. This
approximation to the Hartle-Hawking scalar propagator on the Schwarzschild
black-hole geometry is, for that matter, distinct from all other. It is shown
that the stated approximation is valid for physical distances which range from
the event horizon to values which are orders of magnitude above the scale
within which quantum and backreaction effects are comparatively pronounced. An
expression is obtained for the renormalised in the
Hartle-Hawking vacuum state which reproduces the established results on the
event horizon and in that segment of the exterior geometry within which the
approximation is valid. In contrast to previous results the stated expression
has the superior feature of being entirely analytic. The effect of the
manifold's causal structure to scalar propagation is also studied.Comment: 34 pages, 2 figures. Published on line on October 16, 2009 and due to
appear in print in Gen.Rel.Gra

### Energy-Momentum Tensor of Particles Created in an Expanding Universe

We present a general formulation of the time-dependent initial value problem
for a quantum scalar field of arbitrary mass and curvature coupling in a FRW
cosmological model. We introduce an adiabatic number basis which has the virtue
that the divergent parts of the quantum expectation value of the
energy-momentum tensor are isolated in the vacuum piece of , and
may be removed using adiabatic subtraction. The resulting renormalized
is conserved, independent of the cutoff, and has a physically transparent,
quasiclassical form in terms of the average number of created adiabatic
`particles'. By analyzing the evolution of the adiabatic particle number in de
Sitter spacetime we exhibit the time structure of the particle creation
process, which can be understood in terms of the time at which different
momentum scales enter the horizon. A numerical scheme to compute as a
function of time with arbitrary adiabatic initial states (not necessarily de
Sitter invariant) is described. For minimally coupled, massless fields, at late
times the renormalized goes asymptotically to the de Sitter invariant
state previously found by Allen and Folacci, and not to the zero mass limit of
the Bunch-Davies vacuum. If the mass m and the curvature coupling xi differ
from zero, but satisfy m^2+xi R=0, the energy density and pressure of the
scalar field grow linearly in cosmic time demonstrating that, at least in this
case, backreaction effects become significant and cannot be neglected in de
Sitter spacetime.Comment: 28 pages, Revtex, 11 embedded .ps figure

### Public works of South Africa vol. IX no 57, 1948

The Department of Public Works is responsible for building public facilities: schools, hospitals, train stations, bus stations and road infrastructure. It can also be any physical building that is used for a public purpose. Public works is financed and constructed by the Government to improve the community. Public services includes water supply, sewage, electrical grid and dams. Floor plans of buildings are part of Public works. Journal of Public Works of South Africa is published monthly was intended to keep the public up to date with regard to projects of the Public Works Departments of South Africa.*hj202

### Exploring potential germline associated roles of the TRIM-NHL protein NHL-2Â through RNAi screening

TRIM-NHL proteins are highly conserved regulators of developmental pathways in vertebrates and invertebrates. The TRIM-NHL family member NHL-2 in Caenorhabditis elegans functions as a miRNA cofactor to regulate developmental timing. Similar regulatory roles have been reported in other model systems, with the mammalian ortholog in mice, TRIM32, contributing to muscle and neuronal cell proliferation via miRNA activity. Given the interest associated with TRIM-NHL family proteins, we aimed to further investigate the role of NHL-2 in C. elegans development by using a synthetic RNAi screening approach. Using the ORFeome library, we knocked down 11,942 genes in wild-type animals and nhl-2 null mutants. In total, we identified 42 genes that produced strong reproductive synthetic phenotypes when knocked down in nhl-2 null mutants, with little or no change when knocked down in wild-type animals. These included genes associated with transcriptional processes, chromosomal integrity, and key cofactors of the germline small 22G RNA pathway.Gregory M. Davis, Wai Y. Low, Joshua W.T. Anderson and Peter R. Boa

### Quantum backreaction of massive fields and self-consistent semiclassical extreme black holes and acceleration horizons

We consider the effect of backreaction of quantized massive fields on the
metric of extreme black holes (EBH). We find the analytical approximate
expression for the stress-energy tensor for a scalar (with an arbitrary
coupling), spinor and vector fields near an event horizon. We show that,
independent of a concrete type of EBH, the energy measured by a freely falling
observer is finite on the horizon, so that quantum backreaction is consistent
with the existence of EBH. For the Reissner-Nordstrom EBH with a total mass
M_{tot} and charge Q we show that for all cases of physical interest M_{tot}<
Q. We also discuss different types of quantum-corrected Bertotti-Robinson
spacetimes, find for them exact self-consistent solutions and consider
situations in which tiny quantum corrections lead to the qualitative change of
the classical geometry and topology. In all cases one should start not from a
classical background with further adding quantum corrections but from the
quantum-corrected self-consistent geometries from the very beginning.Comment: Minor corrections. To appear in Phys. Rev.

### Analytical approximation of the stress-energy tensor of a quantized scalar field in static spherically symmetric spacetimes

Analytical approximations for ${}$ and ${}$ of a
quantized scalar field in static spherically symmetric spacetimes are obtained.
The field is assumed to be both massive and massless, with an arbitrary
coupling $\xi$ to the scalar curvature, and in a zero temperature vacuum state.
The expressions for ${}$ and ${}$ are divided into
low- and high-frequency parts. The contributions of the high-frequency modes to
these quantities are calculated for an arbitrary quantum state. As an example,
the low-frequency contributions to ${}$ and ${}$ are
calculated in asymptotically flat spacetimes in a quantum state corresponding
to the Minkowski vacuum (Boulware quantum state). The limits of the
applicability of these approximations are discussed.Comment: revtex4, 17 pages; v2: three references adde

### Boulware state and semiclassical thermodynamics of black holes in a cavity

A black hole, surrounded by a reflecting shell, acts as an effective
star-like object with respect to the outer region that leads to vacuum
polarization outside, where the quantum fields are in the Boulware state. We
find the quantum correction to the Hawking temperature, taking into account
this circumstance. It is proportional to the integral of the trace of the total
quantum stress-energy tensor over the whole space from the horizon to infinity.
For the shell, sufficiently close to the horizon, the leading term comes from
the boundary contribution of the Boulware state.Comment: 7 pages. To appear in Phys. Rev.

### Raman spectroscopy insights into the a- and d-phases of formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3)

Solar perovskites have received phenomenal attention and success over the past decade, due to their high power conversion efficiencies (PCE), ease of fabrication and low cost which has enabled the prospect of them being a real commercial contender to the traditional silicon technology. In one of the several developments on the archetypal MAPbI3perovskite absorber layer, FAPbI3was found to obtain a higher PCE, likely due to its more optimum band gap, with doping strategies focusing on the inclusion of MA+/Cs+cations to avoid the unfavourable phase transformation to a photoinactive phase. To better understand the phase change from the photoactive cubic (Pm3ÂŻm) black (a) phase to the unwanted photoinactive (P63/mmc) yellow (d) phase, we make use of variable temperature Raman spectroscopy to probe the molecular species and its relationship to the inorganic framework. We show for the first time there to be no Raman active modes for the a phase up to 4000 cm-1, which can be correlated to thePm3ÂŻmcubic symmetry of that phase. Our detailed studies suggest that previous reports of the observation of Raman peaks for this phase are likely associated with degradation reactions from the localised laser exposure and the formation of Raman active lead oxide. In addition, we have identified water as a contributing factor to the transformation, and observed a corresponding signal in the Raman spectra, although confirmation of its exact role still remains inconclusive

### Method to compute the stress-energy tensor for the massless spin 1/2 field in a general static spherically symmetric spacetime

A method for computing the stress-energy tensor for the quantized, massless,
spin 1/2 field in a general static spherically symmetric spacetime is
presented. The field can be in a zero temperature state or a non-zero
temperature thermal state. An expression for the full renormalized
stress-energy tensor is derived. It consists of a sum of two tensors both of
which are conserved. One tensor is written in terms of the modes of the
quantized field and has zero trace. In most cases it must be computed
numerically. The other tensor does not explicitly depend on the modes and has a
trace equal to the trace anomaly. It can be used as an analytic approximation
for the stress-energy tensor and is equivalent to other approximations that
have been made for the stress-energy tensor of the massless spin 1/2 field in
static spherically symmetric spacetimes.Comment: 34 pages, no figure

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