67,113 research outputs found

### Raman scattering from a superconductivity-induced bound state in $MgB_2$

It is shown that the sharp peak in the $E_{2g}$ Raman spectrum of
superconducting $MgB_2$ is due to a bound state caused by the electron-phonon
coupling. Our theory explains why this peak appears only in the spectra with
$E_{2g}$ symmetry and only in the $\sigma$ but not $\pi$ bands. The properties
of the bound state and the Raman spectrum are investigated, also in the
presence of impurity scattering.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures, will appear in PR

### Spiral structure of M51: Streaming motions across the spiral arms

The atomic hydrogen (HI) and the H alpha emission line in the grand-design spiral galaxy M51 have been observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and the Taurus Fabry-Perot imaging spectrometer, respectively. Across the inner spiral arms significant tangential and radial velocity gradients are detected in the H alpha emission after subtraction of the axi-symmetric component of the velocity field. The shift is positive on the inside and negative on the outside of the northern arm. Across the southern arm this situation is reversed. The direction of the shifts is such that the material is moving inward and faster compared to circular rotation in both arms, consistent with the velocity perturbations predicted by spiral density wave models for gas downstream of a spiral shock. The observed shifts amount to 20 to 30 km (s-1), corresponding to streaming motions of 60 to 90 km (s-1) in the plane of the disk (inclination angle 20 degrees). Comparable velocity gradients have also been observed by Vogel et al. in the CO emission from the inner northern arm of M51. The streaming motions in M51 are about 2 to 3 times as large as the ones found in HI by Rots in M81, and successfully modelled by Visser with a self-consistent density wave model. Researchers have not been able to detect conclusively streaming motions in the HI emission from the arms, perhaps due to the relatively poor angular resolution (approx. 15 seconds) of the HI observations

### Non-equilibrium dynamics of an active colloidal "chucker"

We report Monte Carlo simulations of the dynamics of a "chucker": a colloidal
particle which emits smaller solute particles from its surface, isotropically
and at a constant rate k_c. We find that the diffusion constant of the chucker
increases for small k_c, as recently predicted theoretically. At large k_c the
chucker diffuses more slowly due to crowding effects. We compare our simulation
results to those of a "point particle" Langevin dynamics scheme in which the
solute concentration field is calculated analytically, and in which
hydrodynamic effects can be included albeit in an approximate way. By
simulating the dragging of a chucker, we obtain an estimate of its apparent
mobility coefficient which violates the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. We
also characterise the probability density profile for a chucker which sediments
onto a surface which either repels or absorbs the solute particles, and find
that the steady state distributions are very different in the two cases. Our
simulations are inspired by the biological example of
exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria, as well as by recent experimental,
simulation and theoretical work on phoretic colloidal "swimmers".Comment: re-submission after referee's comment

### Large scale dissociation of molecular gas in the sprial arms of M51

The distribution of the atomic and ionized hydrogen along the inner spiral arms of M51 are compared. As is the case in M83, the location of both these phases of the interstellar medium with respect to the major dust lanes suggests that molecular hydrogen is dissociated on kpc scales in active star-forming regions, and that this dissociation process may strongly affect the observed morphology of atomic hydrogen in spiral arms

### Optical Dipole Trapping beyond Rotating Wave Approximation: The case of Large Detuning

We show that the inclusion of counter-rotating terms, usually dropped in
evaluations of interaction of an electric dipole of a two level atom with the
electromagnetic field, leads to significant modifications of trapping potential
in the case of large detuning. The results are shown to be in excellent
numerical agreement with recent experimental findings, for the case of modes of
Laguerre-Gauss spatial profile.Comment: 13 pages, 2 figure

### Cosmic string loops and large-scale structure

We investigate the contribution made by small loops from a cosmic string
network as seeds for large-scale structure formation. We show that cosmic
string loops are highly correlated with the long-string network on large scales
and therefore contribute significantly to the power spectrum of density
perturbations if the average loop lifetime is comparable to or above one Hubble
time. This effect further improves the large-scale bias problem previously
identified in earlier studies of cosmic string models.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figure

### Quantum initial condition sampling for linearized density matrix dynamics: Vibrational pure dephasing of iodine in krypton matrices

This paper reviews the linearized path integral approach for computing time
dependent properties of systems that can be approximated using a mixed
quantum-classical description. This approach is applied to studying vibrational
pure dephasing of ground state molecular iodine in a rare gas matrix. The
Feynman-Kleinert optimized harmonic approximation for the full system density
operator is used to sample initial conditions for the bath degrees of freedom.
This extremely efficient approach is compared with alternative initial
condition sampling techniques at low temperatures where classical initial
condition sampling yields dephasing rates that are nearly an order of magnitude
too slow compared with quantum initial condition sampling and experimental
results.Comment: 20 pages and 8 figure

### Semiflexible polymers under external fields confined to two dimensions

The non-equilibrium structural and dynamical properties of semiflexible
polymers confined to two dimensions are investigated by molecular dynamics
simulations. Three different scenarios are considered: The force-extension
relation of tethered polymers, the relaxation of an initially stretched
semiflexible polymer, and semiflexible polymers under shear flow. We find
quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions for the force-extension
relation and the time dependence of the entropically contracting polymer. The
semiflexible polymers under shear flow exhibit significant conformational
changes at large shear rates, where less stiff polymers are extended by the
flow, whereas rather stiff polymers are contracted. In addition, the polymers
are aligned by the flow, thereby the two-dimensional semiflexible polymers
behave similarly to flexible polymers in three dimensions. The tumbling times
display a power-law dependence at high shear rate rates with an exponent
comparable to the one of flexible polymers in three-dimensional systems.Comment: Accepted for publication in J. Chem. Phy

### Evolution: Complexity, uncertainty and innovation

Complexity science provides a general mathematical basis for evolutionary thinking. It makes us face the inherent, irreducible nature of uncertainty and the limits to knowledge and prediction. Complex, evolutionary systems work on the basis of on-going, continuous internal processes of exploration, experimentation and innovation at their underlying levels. This is acted upon by the level above, leading to a selection process on the lower levels and a probing of the stability of the level above. This could either be an organizational level above, or the potential market place. Models aimed at predicting system behaviour therefore consist of assumptions of constraints on the micro-level â€“ and because of inertia or conformity may be approximately true for some unspecified time. However, systems without strong mechanisms of repression and conformity will evolve, innovate and change, creating new emergent structures, capabilities and characteristics. Systems with no individual freedom at their lower levels will have predictable behaviour in the short term â€“ but will not survive in the long term. Creative, innovative, evolving systems, on the other hand, will more probably survive over longer times, but will not have predictable characteristics or behaviour. These minimal mechanisms are all that are required to explain (though not predict) the co-evolutionary processes occurring in markets, organizations, and indeed in emergent, evolutionary communities of practice. Some examples will be presented briefly

### Effect of vertical active vibration isolation on tracking performance and on ride qualities

An investigation to determine the effect on pilot performance and comfort of an active vibration isolation system for a commercial transport pilot seat is reported. The test setup consisted of: a hydraulic shaker which produced random vertical vibration inputs; the active vibration isolation system; the pilot seat; the pilot control wheel and column; the side-arm controller; and a two-axis compensatory tracking task. The effects of various degrees of pilot isolation on short-term (two-minute) tracking performance and comfort were determined

- â€¦