3,968 research outputs found

    Atmospheric effects on remote sensing of non-uniform temperature sources

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    The effects are considered of an absorbing, emitting, and scattering atmosphere upon the remote sensing of surface areas having non-uniform intensity. These atmospheric effects may be significant in determination, by remote sensing, of non-uniform surface temperature distributions, and the results of the investigation are applicable in such cases. Analytical methods and a digital computational program are presented, expressing the results in terms of contrast and contrast transmittance between two adjacent emitting areas having unequal intensities, in the presence of a additional disturbing emitters. In the computational procedure, emitting areas are replaced by point-source emitters, each assigned and effective intensity based upon the intensity of the area it replaces. Absorbing, emitting, and scattering behavior of the atmosphere may be specified in the computational procedure either by means of analytical atmospheric models or by means of calibrating ground level emitters

    International Evidence Review of Conditional (Suspended) Sentences: Final Report

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    This report reviews international use of conditional sentences, specifically understood to mean a criminal sentence of imprisonment which is suspended pending a person's satisfaction of specific criteria. These sentences are being considered in jurisdictions seeking ways of managing prison population growth. The laws and any information about use of such sentences among selected countries is considered in the first part. The second part reviews research on perceptions of such sentences, and community-based sentences generally. This research was requested by and submitted to the Scottish Government

    Reexamining evidence-based practice in community corrections: beyond 'a confined view' of what works

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    This article aims to reexamine the development and scope of evidence-based practice (EBP) in community corrections by exploring three sets of issues. Firstly, we examine the relationships between the contested purposes of community supervision and their relationships to questions of evidence. Secondly, we explore the range of forms of evidence that might inform the pursuit of one purpose of supervisionā€”the rehabilitation of offendersā€”making the case for a fuller engagement with ā€œdesistanceā€ research in supporting this process. Thirdly, we examine who can and should be involved in conversations about EBP, arguing that both ex/offendersā€™ and practitionersā€™ voices need to be respected and heard in this debate

    Second-chance punitivism and the contractual governance of crime and incivility: New Labour, old Hobbes

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    The growing application of mechanisms of contractual governance to behaviour that breaches social norms, rather than the criminal law, appears to represent an ethopolitical concern with delinquent self-reform through the activation of technologies of the self. In fact, there is little empirical evidence that the contractual governance of incivility leads to such self-reform. Beneath the ideology of contractual agreement to observe social norms lies what this paper calls a ā€˜second-chance punitivismā€™ which operates to crystallise behavioural elements of the Hobbesian social contract, after breach, into a more specific form. The responsibilising and individualising properties of this form of contractual governance set the moral-ideological platform for a retributive punitivism, when the rational agents it creates fail to live up to their image, and are taken to have wasted their ā€˜second chanceā€™

    A nod in the wrong direction : Does nonverbal feedback affect eyewitness confidence in interviews?

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    Eyewitnesses can be influenced by an interviewer's behaviour and report information with inflated confidence as a result. Previous research has shown that positive feedback administered verbally can affect the confidence attributed to testimony, but the effect of non-verbal influence in interviews has been given little attention. This study investigated whether positive or negative non-verbal feedback could affect the confidence witnesses attribute to their responses. Participants witnessed staged CCTV footage of a crime scene and answered 20 questions in a structured interview, during which they were given either positive feedback (a head nod), negative feedback (a head shake) or no feedback. Those presented with positive non-verbal feedback reported inflated confidence compared with those presented with negative non-verbal feedback regardless of accuracy, and this effect was most apparent when participants reported awareness of the feedback. These results provide further insight into the effects of interviewer behaviour in investigative interviewsPeer reviewedFinal Accepted Versio

    Coffee inventory through orbital imagery

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    There are no author-identified significant results in this report

    Fast pyrolysis of halogenated plastics recovered from waste computers

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    The disposal of waste computers is an issue that is gaining increasing interest around the world. In this paper, results from the fast pyrolysis in a fluidized bed reactor of three different waste computer monitor casings composed of mainly acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymer and two different waste computer body casings composed of mostly poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) type polymers are presented. Preliminary characterization of the waste plastics was investigated using coupled thermogravimetric analysis-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (TGA-FT-IR). The results showed that the plastics decomposed in two stages. For the ABS-containing monitor casings, aromatic and aliphatic material were released in the first and second stages. The PVC-containing computer body casing samples showed a first-stage evolution of HCl and a second stage evolution of aromatic and aliphatic material and further HCl. In addition, each of the five plastics was fast-pyrolyzed in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed reactor at 500 Ā°C. The fluidized bed pyrolysis led to the conversion of most of the plastics to pyrolysis oil, although the two PVC computer body cases produced large quantities of HCl. The pyrolysis oils were characterized by GC-MS and it was found that they were chemically very heterogeneous and contained a wide range of aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, oxygenated, and nitrogenated compounds
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