3,318 research outputs found

    QCD Green functions in a gluon field

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    We formulate a dressed perturbative expansion of QCD, where the standard diagrams are evaluated in the presence of a constant external gluon field whose magnitude is gaussian distributed. The approach is Poincar{\'e} and gauge invariant, and modifies the usual results for hard processes only by power suppressed contributions. Long distance propagation of quarks and gluons turns out to be inhibited due to a branch point singularity instead of a pole at p2=0p^2=0 in the quark and gluon propagators. The dressing keeps the (massless) quarks in q qbar fluctuations of the photon at a finite distance from each other.Comment: 21 pages, 7 figures. Minor modifications in text. Version to be published in JHE

    Single Spin Asymmetry at Large x_F and k_T

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    The large single spin asymmetries observed at high momentum fractions x_F and transverse momenta k_T in p^\uparrow p -> \pi(x_F,k_T)+X as well as in pp -> \Lambda^\uparrow(x_F,k_T)+X suggest that soft helicity flip processes are coherent with hard scattering. Such coherence can be maintained if x_F -> 1 as k_T -> \infty, while k_T^2(1-x_F) \sim \Lambda_QCD^2 stays fixed. The entire hadron wave function, rather than a single quark, then contributes to the scattering process. Analogous coherence effects have been seen experimentally in the Drell-Yan process at high x_F. We find that the p^\uparrow p -> \pi(x_F,k_T)+X production amplitudes have large dynamic phases and that helicity flip contributions are unsuppressed in this limit, giving rise to potentially large single spin asymmetries.Comment: 11 pages, 2 figures. v2: References and a preprint number added. Calculation of section 4 modified. v3: Minor changes in text. Version to be published in JHE

    Spin asymmetry at large x_F and k_T

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    We suggest that the large single spin asymmetries observed at high momentum fractions x_F and transverse momenta k_T of the pion in p^\uparrow p -> \pi(x_F,k_T)+X arise from the coherence of the soft interactions with the hard parton scattering process. Such coherence can be maintained if x_F -> 1 as k_T -> \infty, while k_T^2(1-x_F) ~ \Lambda_{QCD}^2 stays fixed. Analogous coherence effects have been seen experimentally in the Drell-Yan process at high x_F. We find that the p^\uparrow p -> \pi X production amplitudes have large dynamic phases and that helicity flip contributions are unsuppressed in this limit, giving rise to potentially large single spin asymmetries.Comment: 3 pages, 1 figure. Talk given at EPS HEP 2007, Mancheste

    Quantum computers can search rapidly by using almost any selective transformations

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    The search problem is to find a state satisfying certain properties out of a given set. Grover's algorithm drives a quantum computer from a prepared initial state to the target state and solves the problem quadratically faster than a classical computer. The algorithm uses selective transformations to distinguish the initial state and target state from other states. It does not succeed unless the selective transformations are very close to phase-inversions. Here we show a way to go beyond this limitation. An important application lies in quantum error-correction, where the errors can cause the selective transformations to deviate from phase-inversions. The algorithms presented here are robust to errors as long as the errors are reproducible and reversible. This particular class of systematic errors arise often from imperfections in apparatus setup. Hence our algorithms offer a significant flexibility in the physical implementation of quantum search.Comment: 8 pages, Accepted for publication in PR

    Comover Enhancement of Quarkonium Production

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    Quarkonium data suggest an enhancement of the hadroproduction rate from interactions of the heavy quark pair with a comoving color field generated in the hard gg -> Q\bar{Q} subprocess. We review the motivations and principal consequences of this comover enhancement scenario (CES).Comment: 7 pages, 1 eps figure, to appear in the proceedings of the CERN 2001-2002 workshop `Hard Probes in Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC

    Turbulence, Complexity, and Solar Flares

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    The issue of predicting solar flares is one of the most fundamental in physics, addressing issues of plasma physics, high-energy physics, and modelling of complex systems. It also poses societal consequences, with our ever-increasing need for accurate space weather forecasts. Solar flares arise naturally as a competition between an input (flux emergence and rearrangement) in the photosphere and an output (electrical current build up and resistive dissipation) in the corona. Although initially localised, this redistribution affects neighbouring regions and an avalanche occurs resulting in large scale eruptions of plasma, particles, and magnetic field. As flares are powered from the stressed field rooted in the photosphere, a study of the photospheric magnetic complexity can be used to both predict activity and understand the physics of the magnetic field. The magnetic energy spectrum and multifractal spectrum are highlighted as two possible approaches to this.Comment: 2 figure

    The hbar Expansion in Quantum Field Theory

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    We show how expansions in powers of Planck's constant hbar = h/2\pi can give new insights into perturbative and nonperturbative properties of quantum field theories. Since hbar is a fundamental parameter, exact Lorentz invariance and gauge invariance are maintained at each order of the expansion. The physics of the hbar expansion depends on the scheme; i.e., different expansions are obtained depending on which quantities (momenta, couplings and masses) are assumed to be independent of hbar. We show that if the coupling and mass parameters appearing in the Lagrangian density are taken to be independent of hbar, then each loop in perturbation theory brings a factor of hbar. In the case of quantum electrodynamics, this scheme implies that the classical charge e, as well as the fine structure constant are linear in hbar. The connection between the number of loops and factors of hbar is more subtle for bound states since the binding energies and bound-state momenta themselves scale with hbar. The hbar expansion allows one to identify equal-time relativistic bound states in QED and QCD which are of lowest order in hbar and transform dynamically under Lorentz boosts. The possibility to use retarded propagators at the Born level gives valence-like wave-functions which implicitly describe the sea constituents of the bound states normally present in its Fock state representation.Comment: 8 pages, 1 figure. Version to be published in Phys. Rev.

    Interpretation of High Energy String Scattering in terms of String Configurations

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    High energy string scattering at fixed momentum transfer, known to be dominated by Regge trajectory exchange, is interpreted by identifying families of string states which induce each type of trajectory exchange. These include the usual leading trajectory α(t)=αt+1\alpha(t)=\alpha^\prime t+1 and its daughters as well as the ``sister'' trajectories αm(t)=α(t)/m(m1)/2\alpha_m(t)=\alpha(t)/m-(m-1)/2 and their daughters. The contribution of the sister αm\alpha_m to high energy scattering is dominated by string excitations in the mthm^{th} mode. Thus, at large t-t, string scattering is dominated by wee partons, consistently with a picture of string as an infinitely composite system of ``constituents'' which carry zero energy and momentum.Comment: 14 pages, phyzzx, psfig required, Florida Preprint UFIFT-94-

    Stellar laboratories. V. The Xe VI ultraviolet spectrum and the xenon abundance in the hot DO-type white dwarf RE0503-289

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    For the spectral analysis of spectra of hot stars with a high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), advanced non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that are used for their calculation. Reliable Xe VI oscillator strengths are used to identify Xe lines in the ultraviolet spectrum of the DO-type white dwarf RE0503-289 and to determine its photospheric Xe abundance. We publish newly calculated oscillator strengths that are based on a recently measured Xe VI laboratory line spectrum. These strengths were used to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models to analyze Xe VI lines exhibited in high-resolution and high S/N UV observations of RE0503-289. We identify three hitherto unknown Xe VI lines in the ultraviolet spectrum of RE0503-289 and confirm the previously measured photospheric Xe abundance of this white dwarf (log Xe = -4.2 +/- 0.6). Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are prerequisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Xe VI line profiles in the ultraviolet spectrum of the white dwarf RE0503-289 were well reproduced with the newly calculated Xe VI oscillator strengths.Comment: 3 pages, 4 figure
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