1,217 research outputs found

    Analytical representations of unified equations of state of neutron-star matter

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    Analytical representations are derived for two equations of state (EOSs) of neutron-star matter: FPS and SLy. Each of these EOSs is unified, that is, it describes the crust and the core of a neutron star using the same physical model. Two versions of the EOS parametrization are considered. In the first one, pressure and mass density are given as functions of the baryon density. In the second version, pressure, mass density, and baryon density are given as functions of the pseudo-enthalpy, which makes this representation particularly useful for 2-D calculations of stationary rotating configurations of neutron stars.Comment: 7 pages, 5 figures, 3 tables, accepted by A&A. In v.2, auxiliary fits (15) and (16) are correcte

    Spin-Down of Neutron Stars and Compositional Transitions in the Cold Crustal Matter

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    Transitions of nuclear compositions in the crust of a neutron star induced by stellar spin-down are evaluated at zero temperature. We construct a compressible liquid-drop model for the energy of nuclei immersed in a neutron gas, including pairing and shell correction terms, in reference to the known properties of the ground state of matter above neutron drip density, 4.3√ó1011gcm‚ąí34.3 \times 10^{11} g cm^{-3}. Recent experimental values and extrapolations of nuclear masses are used for a description of matter at densities below neutron drip. Changes in the pressure of matter in the crust due to the stellar spin-down are calculated by taking into account the structure of the crust of a slowly and uniformly rotating relativistic neutron star. If the initial rotation period is ‚ąľ\sim ms, these changes cause nuclei, initially being in the ground-state matter above a mass density of about 3√ó1013gcm‚ąí33 \times 10^{13} g cm^{-3}, to absorb neutrons in the equatorial region where the matter undergoes compression, and to emit them in the vicinity of the rotation axis where the matter undergoes decompression. Heat generation by these processes is found to have significant effects on the thermal evolution of old neutron stars with low magnetic fields; the surface emission predicted from this heating is compared with the ROSATROSAT observations of X-ray emission from millisecond pulsars and is shown to be insufficient to explain the observed X-ray luminosities.Comment: 32 pages, LaTeX, 11 Postscript figures. Accepted for publication in Ap

    Accelerated expansion of the Crab Nebula and evaluation of its neutron-star parameters

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    A model of an accelerated expansion of the Crab Nebula powered by the spinning-down Crab pulsar is proposed, in which time dependence of the acceleration is connected with evolution of pulsar luminosity. Using recent observational data, we derive estimates of the Crab neutron-star moment of inertia. Correlations between the neutron star moment of inertia and its mass and radius allow for rough estimates of the Crab neutron-star radius and mass. In contrast to the previously used constant-acceleration approximation, even for the expanding nebula mass ~7 M_sun results obtained within our model do not stay in conflict with the modern stiff equations of state of dense matter.Comment: to be submitted to Astronomy & Astrophysic

    Superbursts from Strange Stars

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    Recent models of carbon ignition on accreting neutron stars predict superburst ignition depths that are an order of magnitude larger than observed. We explore a possible solution to this problem, that the compact stars in low mass X-ray binaries that have shown superbursts are in fact strange stars with a crust of normal matter. We calculate the properties of superbursts on strange stars, and the resulting constraints on the properties of strange quark matter. We show that the observed ignition conditions exclude fast neutrino emission in the quark core, for example by the direct Urca process, which implies that strange quark matter at stellar densities should be in a color superconducting state. For slow neutrino emission in the quark matter core, we find that reproducing superburst properties requires a definite relation between three poorly constrained properties of strange quark matter: its thermal conductivity, its slow neutrino emissivity and the energy released by converting a nucleon into strange quark matter.Comment: 4 pages, submitted to Ap. J. Let

    Dynamical stability of strange quark stars

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    We show that the mass-radius (M‚ąíR)(M-R) relation corresponding to the MIT bag models of strange quark matter (SQM) and the models obtained by Day et al (1998) do not provide the necessary and sufficient condition for dynamical stability for the equilibrium configurations, since such configurations can not even fulfill the necessary condition of hydrostatic equilibrium provided by the exterior Schwarzschild solution. These findings will remain unaltered and can be extended to any other sequence of pure SQM. This study explicitly show that although the strange quark matter might exist in the state of zero pressure and temperature, but the models of pure strange quark `stars' can not exist in the state of hydrostatic equilibrium on the basis of General Relativity Theory. This study can affect the results which are claiming that various objects like - RX J1856.5-3754, SAX J1808.4-3658, 4U 1728-34, PSR 0943+10 etc. might be strange stars.Comment: 7 pages (including 6 tables and 1 figure) in MNRAS styl

    The outer crust of non-accreting cold neutron stars

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    The properties of the outer crust of non-accreting cold neutron stars are studied by using modern nuclear data and theoretical mass tables updating in particular the classic work of Baym, Pethick and Sutherland. Experimental data from the atomic mass table from Audi, Wapstra, and Thibault of 2003 is used and a thorough comparison of many modern theoretical nuclear models, relativistic and non-relativistic ones, is performed for the first time. In addition, the influences of pairing and deformation are investigated. State-of-the-art theoretical nuclear mass tables are compared in order to check their differences concerning the neutron dripline, magic neutron numbers, the equation of state, and the sequence of neutron-rich nuclei up to the dripline in the outer crust of non-accreting cold neutron stars.Comment: 20 pages, 10 figures, accepted for publication in Phys. Rev.
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