987 research outputs found

    A 3D radiative transfer framework: IV. spherical & cylindrical coordinate systems

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    We extend our framework for 3D radiative transfer calculations with a non-local operator splitting methods along (full) characteristics to spherical and cylindrical coordinate systems. These coordinate systems are better suited to a number of physical problems than Cartesian coordinates. The scattering problem for line transfer is solved via means of an operator splitting (OS) technique. The formal solution is based on a full characteristics method. The approximate Λ\Lambda operator is constructed considering nearest neighbors exactly. The code is parallelized over both wavelength and solid angle using the MPI library. We present the results of several test cases with different values of the thermalization parameter for the different coordinate systems. The results are directly compared to 1D plane parallel tests. The 3D results agree very well with the well-tested 1D calculations.Comment: A&A, in pres

    Numerical Solution of the Expanding Stellar Atmosphere Problem

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    In this paper we discuss numerical methods and algorithms for the solution of NLTE stellar atmosphere problems involving expanding atmospheres, e.g., found in novae, supernovae and stellar winds. We show how a scheme of nested iterations can be used to reduce the high dimension of the problem to a number of problems with smaller dimensions. As examples of these sub-problems, we discuss the numerical solution of the radiative transfer equation for relativistically expanding media with spherical symmetry, the solution of the multi-level non-LTE statistical equilibrium problem for extremely large model atoms, and our temperature correction procedure. Although modern iteration schemes are very efficient, parallel algorithms are essential in making large scale calculations feasible, therefore we discuss some parallelization schemes that we have developed.Comment: JCAM, in press. 28 pages, also available at ftp://calvin.physast.uga.edu:/pub/preprints/CompAstro.ps.g

    A 3D radiative transfer framework: VII. Arbitrary velocity fields in the Eulerian frame

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    A solution of the radiative-transfer problem in 3D with arbitrary velocity fields in the Eulerian frame is presented. The method is implemented in our 3D radiative transfer framework and used in the PHOENIX/3D code. It is tested by comparison to our well- tested 1D co-moving frame radiative transfer code, where the treatment of a monotonic velocity field is implemented in the Lagrangian frame. The Eulerian formulation does not need much additional memory and is useable on state-of-the-art computers, even large-scale applications with 1000's of wavelength points are feasible

    Improved discretization of the wavelength derivative term in CMF operator splitting numerical radiative transfer

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    We describe two separate wavelength discretization schemes that can be used in the numerical solution of the comoving frame radiative transfer equation. We present an improved second order discretization scheme and show that it leads to significantly less numerical diffusion than previous scheme. We also show that due to the nature of the second order term in some extreme cases it can become numerically unstable. We stabilize the scheme by introducing a mixed discretization scheme and present the results from several test calculations.Comment: 9 pages, 9 figures, A&A, in pres

    Convection and observable properties of late-type giants

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    We show that contrary to what is expected from 1D stationary model atmospheres, 3D hydrodynamical modeling predicts a considerable influence of convection on the spectral properties of late-type giants. This is due to the fact that convection overshoots into the formally stable outer atmospheric layers producing a notable granulation pattern in the 3D hydrodynamical models, which has a direct influence on the observable spectra and colors. Within the framework of standard 1D model atmospheres the average thermal stratification of the 3D hydro model can not be reproduced with any reasonable choice of the mixing length parameter and formulation of the turbulent pressure. The differences in individual photometric colors -- in terms of 3D versus 1D -- reach up to ~0.2 mag, or \Delta Teff~70K. We discuss the impact of full 3D hydrodynamical models on the interpretation of observable properties of late-type giants, briefly mentioning problems and challenges which need to be solved for bringing these models to a routine use within the astronomical community in 5-10 years from now.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures. Proceedings of the IAU Symposium 232 "The Scientific Requirements for Extremely Large Telescopes", eds. P. Whitelock, B. Leibundgut, and M. Dennefel

    General Relativistic Radiative Transfer

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    We present a general method to calculate radiative transfer including scattering in the continuum as well as in lines in spherically symmetric systems that are influenced by the effects of general relativity (GR). We utilize a comoving wavelength ansatz that allows to resolve spectral lines throughout the atmosphere. The used numerical solution is an operator splitting (OS) technique that uses a characteristic formal solution. The bending of photon paths and the wavelength shifts due to the effects of GR are fully taken into account, as is the treatment of image generation in a curved spacetime. We describe the algorithm we use and demonstrate the effects of GR on the radiative transport of a two level atom line in a neutron star like atmosphere for various combinations of continuous and line scattering coefficients. In addition, we present grey continuum models and discuss the effects of different scattering albedos on the emergent spectra and the determination of effective temperatures and radii of neutron star atmospheres

    Modeling CHANDRA Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer Observations of Classical Novae with PHOENIX. I. V4743 Sagittarii

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    We use the PHOENIX code package to model the X-ray spectrum of Nova V4743 Sagittarii observed with the LETGS onboard the Chandra satellite on March 2003. Our atmosphere models are 1D spherical, expanding, line blanketed, and in full NLTE. To analyze nova atmospheres and related systems with an underlying nuclear burning envelope at X-ray wavelengths, it was necessary to update the code with new microphysics, as discussed in this paper. We demonstrate that the X-ray emission is dominated by thermal bremsstrahlung and that the hard X-rays are dominated by Fe and N absorption. The best fit to the observation is provided at a temperature of T_eff = 5.8 x 10^5 K, with L_bol = 50 000 L_sun. The models are calculated for solar abundances. It is shown that the models can be used to determine abundances in the nova ejecta.Comment: 8 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysic
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