2,877 research outputs found

    The CMS tracker

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    Tuning Monte Carlo Generators: The Perugia Tunes

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    We present 9 new tunes of the pT-ordered shower and underlying-event model in PYTHIA 6.4. These "Perugia" tunes update and supersede the older "S0" family. The data sets used to constrain the models include hadronic Z0 decays at LEP, Tevatron minimum-bias data at 630, 1800, and 1960 GeV, Tevatron Drell-Yan data at 1800 and 1960 GeV, and SPS min-bias data at 200, 546, and 900 GeV. In addition to the central parameter set, called "Perugia 0", we introduce a set of 8 related "Perugia Variations" that attempt to systematically explore soft, hard, parton density, and colour structure variations in the theoretical parameters. Based on these variations, a best-guess prediction of the charged track multiplicity in inelastic, nondiffractive minimum-bias events at the LHC is made. Note that these tunes can only be used with PYTHIA 6, not with PYTHIA 8. Note: this report was updated in March 2011 with a new set of variations, collectively labeled "Perugia 2011", that are optimized for matching applications and which also take into account some lessons from the early LHC data. In order not to break the original text, these are described separately in Appendix B. Note 2: a subsequent "Perugia 2012" update is described in Appendix C.Comment: 46 page

    Transverse nucleon structure and diagnostics of hard parton-parton processes at LHC

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    We propose a new method to determine at what transverse momenta particle production in high-energy pp collisions is governed by hard parton-parton processes. Using information on the transverse spatial distribution of partons obtained from hard exclusive processes in ep/gamma p scattering, we evaluate the impact parameter distribution of pp collisions with a hard parton-parton process as a function of p_T of the produced parton (jet). We find that the average pp impact parameters in such events depend very weakly on p_T in the range 2 < p_T < few 100 GeV, while they are much smaller than those in minimum-bias inelastic collisions. The impact parameters in turn govern the observable transverse multiplicity in such events (in the direction perpendicular to the trigger particle or jet). Measuring the transverse multiplicity as a function of p_T thus provides an effective tool for determining the minimum p_T for which a given trigger particle originates from a hard parton-parton process. Additional tests of the proposed geometric correlations are possible by measuring the dependence on the trigger rapidity. Various strategies for implementing this method are outlined.Comment: 9 pages, 6 figure

    Incidenza della sclerosi multipla in Toscana: uno studio basato su dati amministrativi

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    INTRODUZIONE L’Italia è un’area ad elevato rischio di sclerosi multipla (SM) con una prevalenza stimata di 75.000 casi e un’incidenza di 2.000 casi annui. Gli ultimi dati pubblicati sull’incidenza sono 5,5 casi/105 a Padova (2000-09), 6,6 a Genova (1998-2007) e 9,7 in Sardegna (2003-07). In Toscana è presente un registro regionale della SM ma, ad oggi, non è rappresentativo dell’intera popolazione. Una possibile alternativa per studiare l’epidemiologia è attraverso i dati amministrativi. Questi, infatti, coprono l’intera popolazione residente e vengono raccolti di routine in un modo standardizzato ai fini della gestione del servizio sanitario. Il nostro scopo è calcolare l’incidenza della SM in Toscana utilizzando dati amministrativi. METODI Per il calcolo dell’incidenza abbiamo creato il seguente algoritmo: ospedalizzazione in reparto per acuti e con diagnosi primaria di SM, esenzione attiva per SM, e prescrizione di farmaci specifici. I casi incidenti sono stati identificati come quei casi catturati dall’algoritmo non tracciati in precedenza nei flussi amministrativi, e la data della prima traccia è stata considerata quale data di diagnosi della SM. Da questa coorte di soggetti abbiamo selezionato i pazienti con un’età ≤ 55 anni, residenti in Toscana al momento della diagnosi e presenti in anagrafe da almeno 10 anni (o nati in Toscana se età <10). Abbiamo calcolato i tassi grezzi e standardizzati e gli intervalli di confidenza (IC) al 95% per gli anni 2011-2015. RISULTATI Abbiamo identificato, negli anni analizzati, 1.056 nuovi casi con un’incidenza che varia da 5,04/105 nel 2011 a 6,02 casi/105nel 2015 (Tab 1). Nelle donne l’incidenza è circa due volte più alta rispetto agli uomini con un range che va da 6,48 a 7,96/105 nelle donne, e da 3,49 a 3,93/105 negli uomini. CONCLUSIONI L’incidenza calcolata risulta elevata, soprattutto nelle donne, ma comunque in linea ai dati pubblicati in altre Regioni, al di là dei bias metodologici legati all’uso di dati amministrativi

    Eta photoproduction on the neutron at GRAAL: Measurement of the differential cross section

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    In this contribution, we will present our first preliminary measurement of the differential cross section for the reaction gamma+n->eta+n. Comparison of the reactions gamma+p->eta+p for free and bound proton (D2 target) will also be discussed.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures, Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Meson-Nucleon Physics and the Structure of the Nucleon, August 29-September 4 2004, Beijing, Chin

    Multi-Parton Interactions at the LHC

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    We review the recent progress in the theoretical description and experimental observation of multiple parton interactions. Subjects covered include experimental measurements of minimum bias interactions and of the underlying event, models of soft physics implemented in Monte Carlo generators, developments in the theoretical description of multiple parton interactions and phenomenological studies of double parton scattering. This article stems from contributions presented at the Helmholtz Alliance workshop on "Multi-Parton Interactions at the LHC", DESY Hamburg, 13-15 September 2010.Comment: 68 page

    Measurement of eta photoproduction on the proton from threshold to 1500 MeV

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    Beam asymmetry and differential cross section for the reaction gamma+p->eta+p were measured from production threshold to 1500 MeV photon laboratory energy. The two dominant neutral decay modes of the eta meson, eta->2g and eta->3pi0, were analyzed. The full set of measurements is in good agreement with previously published results. Our data were compared with three models. They all fit satisfactorily the results but their respective resonance contributions are quite different. The possible photoexcitation of a narrow state N(1670) was investigated and no evidence was found.Comment: 18 pages, 14 figures, 4 tables Submitted to EPJ

    Lowering the Light Speed Isotropy Limit: European Synchrotron Radiation Facility Measurements

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    The measurement of the Compton edge of the scattered electrons in GRAAL facility in European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble with respect to the Cosmic Microwave Background dipole reveals up to 10 sigma variations larger than the statistical errors. We now show that the variations are not due to the frequency variations of the accelerator. The nature of Compton edge variations remains unclear, thus outlining the imperative of dedicated studies of light speed anisotropy
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