2,035 research outputs found

    Light-by-light scattering sum rules constraining meson transition form factors

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    Relating the forward light-by-light scattering to energy weighted integrals of the \gamma* \gamma -fusion cross sections, with one real photon (\gamma) and one virtual photon (\gamma*), we find two new exact super-convergence relations. They complement the known super-convergence relation based on the extension of the GDH sum rule to the light-light system. We also find a set of sum rules for the low-energy photon-photon interaction. All of the new relations are verified here exactly at leading order in scalar and spinor QED. The super-convergence relations, applied to the \gamma* \gamma -production of mesons, lead to intricate relations between the \gamma \gamma -decay widths or the \gamma* \gamma -transition form factors for (pseudo-) scalar, axial-vector and tensor mesons. We discuss the phenomenological implications of these results for mesons in both the light-quark sector and the charm-quark sector.Comment: 32 pages, 7 figure

    Test of the τ-model of Bose–Einstein correlations and reconstruction of the source function in hadronic Z-boson decay at LEP

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    Bose–Einstein correlations of pairs of identical charged pions produced in hadronic Z decays are analyzed in terms of various parametrizations. A good description is achieved using a LĂ©vy stable distribution in conjunction with a model where a particle’s momentum is correlated with its space–time point of production, the τ-model. Using this description and the measured rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, the space–time evolution of particle emission in two-jet events is reconstructed. However, the elongation of the particle emission region previously observed is not accommodated in the τ-model, and this is investigated using an ad hoc modification

    Perfect preferential orientation of nitrogen-vacancy defects in a synthetic diamond sample

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    We show that the orientation of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defects in diamond can be efficiently controlled through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth on a (111)-oriented diamond substrate. More precisely, we demonstrate that spontaneously generated NV defects are oriented with a ~ 97 % probability along the [111] axis, corresponding to the most appealing orientation among the four possible crystallographic axes. Such a nearly perfect preferential orientation is explained by analyzing the diamond growth mechanism on a (111)-oriented substrate and could be extended to other types of defects. This work is a significant step towards the design of optimized diamond samples for quantum information and sensing applications.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figure

    Forward-backward multiplicity correlations and leakage parameter behaviour in asymmetric high energy collisions

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    Continuing previous work, forward-backward multiplicity correlations are studied in asymmetric collisions in the framework of the weighted superposition mechanism of different classes of events. New parameters for the asymmetric clan distribution and for the particle leakage from clans in one hemisphere to the opposite one are introduced to effectively classify different classes of collisions. This tool should be used to explore forward-backward multiplicity correlations in AB and pA collisions in present and future experiments at RHIC and LHC.Comment: 14 pages, 2 figures, latex 2e with amsmat

    Factorization effects in a model of unstable particles

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    The effects of factorization are considered within the framework of the model of unstable particles with a smeared mass. It is shown that two-particle cross section and three-particle decay width can be described by the universal factorized formulae for an unstable particles of an arbitrary spin in an intermediate state. The exact factorization is caused by the specific structure of the model unstable-particle propagators. This result is generalized to complicated scattering and decay-chain processes with unstable particles in intermediate states. We analyze applicability of the method and evaluate its accuracy.Comment: 13 pages, 7 figure

    Bosonic Quartic Couplings at LHC

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    We analyze the potential of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to study anomalous quartic vector-boson interactions Z Z gamma gamma, Z Z Z gamma, W+ W- gamma gamma, and W+ W- Z gamma through the weak boson fusion processes q q -> q q gamma gamma and q q -> q q gamma Z(-> l+ l-) with l = electron or muon. After a careful study of the backgrounds and how to extract them from the data, we show that the process p p -> j j gamma l+ l- is potentially the most sensitive to deviations from the Standard Model, improving the sensitivity to anomalous couplings by up to a factor 10^4 (10^2) with respect to the present direct (indirect) limits.Comment: 18 pages, 2 figures, revised versio

    Rare decay Z --> neutrino antineutrino photon photon via quartic gauge boson couplings

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    We present a detailed calculation of the rare decay Z --> neutrino antineutrino photon photon via the quartic neutral gauge boson coupling Z-Z-photon-photon in the framework of the effective Lagrangian approach. The current experimental bound on this decay mode is then used to constrain the coefficients of this coupling. It is found that the bounds obtained in this way, of the order of 10−110^{-1}, are weaker than the ones obtained from the analysis of triple-boson production at LEP-2Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures, to appear in Physical Review D Brief Report

    Measurement of the shadowing of high-energy cosmic rays by the Moon: A search for TeV-energy antiprotons

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    The shadowing of high-energy cosmic rays by the Moon has been observed with a significance of 9.4 standard deviations with the L3 + C muon spectrometer at CERN. A significant effect of the Earth magnetic field is observed. Since no event deficit on the east side of the Moon has been observed, an upper limit at 90% confidence level on the antiproton to proton ratio of 0.11 is obtained for primary energies around 1 TeV

    A qualitative optimization technique for biophysical neuron models with many parameters

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    We present a novel computational technique that enables more efficient optimization of qualitative features in biophysical neural models