2,035 research outputs found

### Light-by-light scattering sum rules constraining meson transition form factors

Relating the forward light-by-light scattering to energy weighted integrals
of the \gamma* \gamma -fusion cross sections, with one real photon (\gamma) and
one virtual photon (\gamma*), we find two new exact super-convergence
relations. They complement the known super-convergence relation based on the
extension of the GDH sum rule to the light-light system. We also find a set of
sum rules for the low-energy photon-photon interaction. All of the new
relations are verified here exactly at leading order in scalar and spinor QED.
The super-convergence relations, applied to the \gamma* \gamma -production of
mesons, lead to intricate relations between the \gamma \gamma -decay widths or
the \gamma* \gamma -transition form factors for (pseudo-) scalar, axial-vector
and tensor mesons. We discuss the phenomenological implications of these
results for mesons in both the light-quark sector and the charm-quark sector.Comment: 32 pages, 7 figure

### Test of the Ï-model of BoseâEinstein correlations and reconstruction of the source function in hadronic Z-boson decay at LEP

BoseâEinstein correlations of pairs of identical charged pions produced in hadronic Z decays are analyzed in terms of various parametrizations. A good description is achieved using a LĂ©vy stable distribution in conjunction with a model where a particleâs momentum is correlated with its spaceâtime point of production, the Ï-model. Using this description and the measured rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, the spaceâtime evolution of particle emission in two-jet events is reconstructed. However, the elongation of the particle emission region previously observed is not accommodated in the Ï-model, and this is investigated using an ad hoc modification

### Perfect preferential orientation of nitrogen-vacancy defects in a synthetic diamond sample

We show that the orientation of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defects in diamond can
be efficiently controlled through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth on a
(111)-oriented diamond substrate. More precisely, we demonstrate that
spontaneously generated NV defects are oriented with a ~ 97 % probability along
the [111] axis, corresponding to the most appealing orientation among the four
possible crystallographic axes. Such a nearly perfect preferential orientation
is explained by analyzing the diamond growth mechanism on a (111)-oriented
substrate and could be extended to other types of defects. This work is a
significant step towards the design of optimized diamond samples for quantum
information and sensing applications.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figure

### Forward-backward multiplicity correlations and leakage parameter behaviour in asymmetric high energy collisions

Continuing previous work, forward-backward multiplicity correlations are
studied in asymmetric collisions in the framework of the weighted superposition
mechanism of different classes of events. New parameters for the asymmetric
clan distribution and for the particle leakage from clans in one hemisphere to
the opposite one are introduced to effectively classify different classes of
collisions. This tool should be used to explore forward-backward multiplicity
correlations in AB and pA collisions in present and future experiments at RHIC
and LHC.Comment: 14 pages, 2 figures, latex 2e with amsmat

### Factorization effects in a model of unstable particles

The effects of factorization are considered within the framework of the model
of unstable particles with a smeared mass. It is shown that two-particle cross
section and three-particle decay width can be described by the universal
factorized formulae for an unstable particles of an arbitrary spin in an
intermediate state. The exact factorization is caused by the specific structure
of the model unstable-particle propagators. This result is generalized to
complicated scattering and decay-chain processes with unstable particles in
intermediate states. We analyze applicability of the method and evaluate its
accuracy.Comment: 13 pages, 7 figure

### Bosonic Quartic Couplings at LHC

We analyze the potential of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to study
anomalous quartic vector-boson interactions Z Z gamma gamma, Z Z Z gamma, W+ W-
gamma gamma, and W+ W- Z gamma through the weak boson fusion processes q q -> q
q gamma gamma and q q -> q q gamma Z(-> l+ l-) with l = electron or muon. After
a careful study of the backgrounds and how to extract them from the data, we
show that the process p p -> j j gamma l+ l- is potentially the most sensitive
to deviations from the Standard Model, improving the sensitivity to anomalous
couplings by up to a factor 10^4 (10^2) with respect to the present direct
(indirect) limits.Comment: 18 pages, 2 figures, revised versio

### Rare decay Z --> neutrino antineutrino photon photon via quartic gauge boson couplings

We present a detailed calculation of the rare decay Z --> neutrino
antineutrino photon photon via the quartic neutral gauge boson coupling
Z-Z-photon-photon in the framework of the effective Lagrangian approach. The
current experimental bound on this decay mode is then used to constrain the
coefficients of this coupling. It is found that the bounds obtained in this
way, of the order of $10^{-1}$, are weaker than the ones obtained from the
analysis of triple-boson production at LEP-2Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures, to appear in Physical Review D Brief Report

### Measurement of the shadowing of high-energy cosmic rays by the Moon: A search for TeV-energy antiprotons

The shadowing of high-energy cosmic rays by the Moon has been observed with a significance of 9.4 standard deviations with the L3 + C muon spectrometer at CERN. A significant effect of the Earth magnetic field is observed. Since no event deficit on the east side of the Moon has been observed, an upper limit at 90% confidence level on the antiproton to proton ratio of 0.11 is obtained for primary energies around 1 TeV

### A qualitative optimization technique for biophysical neuron models with many parameters

We present a novel computational technique that enables more efficient optimization of qualitative features in biophysical neural models

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