12,312 research outputs found

    Collisions of Shock Waves in General Relativity

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    We show that the Nariai-Bertotti Petrov type D, homogeneous solution of Einstein's vacuum field equations with a cosmological constant describes the space-time in the interaction region following the head-on collision of two homogeneous, plane gravitational shock waves each initially traveling in a vacuum containing no cosmological constant. A shock wave in this context has a step function profile in contrast to an impulsive wave which has a delta function profile. Following the collision two light-like signals, each composed of a plane, homogeneous light-like shell of matter and a plane, homogeneous impulsive gravitational wave, travel away from each other and a cosmological constant is generated in the interaction region. Furthermore a plane, light-like signal consisting of an electromagnetic shock wave accompanying a gravitational shock wave is described with the help of two real parameters, one for each wave. The head-on collision of two such light-like signals is examined and we show that if a simple algebraic relation is satisfied between the two pairs of parameters associated with each incoming light-like signal then the space-time in the interaction region following the collision is a Bertotti space-time which is a homogeneous solution of the vacuum Einstein-Maxwell field equations with a cosmological constant.Comment: Latex file, 10 page

    On The Interaction of Gravitational Waves with Magnetic and Electric Fields

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    The existence of large--scale magnetic fields in the universe has led to the observation that if gravitational waves propagating in a cosmological environment encounter even a small magnetic field then electromagnetic radiation is produced. To study this phenomenon in more detail we take it out of the cosmological context and at the same time simplify the gravitational radiation to impulsive waves. Specifically, to illustrate our findings, we describe the following three physical situations: (1) a cylindrical impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with a magnetic field, (2) an axially symmetric impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with an electric field and (3) a `spherical' impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with a small magnetic field. In cases (1) and (3) electromagnetic radiation is produced behind the gravitational wave. In case (2) no electromagnetic radiation appears after the wave unless a current is established behind the wave breaking the Maxwell vacuum. In all three cases the presence of the magnetic or electric fields results in a modification of the amplitude of the incoming gravitational wave which is explicitly calculated using the Einstein--Maxwell vacuum field equations.Comment: 15 pages, Latex file, accepted for publication in Physical Review

    Scattering of High Speed Particles in the Kerr Gravitational Field

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    We calculate the angles of deflection of high speed particles projected in an arbitrary direction into the Kerr gravitational field. This is done by first calculating the light-like boost of the Kerr gravitational field in an arbitrary direction and then using this boosted gravitational field as an approximation to the gravitational field experienced by a high speed particle. In the rest frame of the Kerr source the angles of deflection experienced by the high speed test particle can then easily be evaluated.Comment: 10 pages, Latex file, accepted for publication in Phys. Rev.

    Collision of Shock Waves in Einstein-Maxwell Theory with a Cosmological Constant: A Special Solution

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    Post-collision space-times of the Cartesian product form M'xM'', where M' and M'' are two-dimensional manifolds, are known with M' and M'' having constant curvatures of equal and opposite sign (for the collision of electromagnetic shock waves) or of the same sign (for the collision of gravitational shock waves). We construct here a new explicit post-collision solution of the Einstein-Maxwell vacuum field equations with a cosmological constant for which M' has constant (nonzero) curvature and M'' has zero curvature.Comment: Latex file, 7 page

    Colliding Impulsive Gravitational Waves and a Cosmological Constant

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    We present a space--time model of the collision of two homogeneous, plane impulsive gravitational waves (each having a delta function profile) propagating in a vacuum before collision and for which the post collision space--time has constant curvature. The profiles of the incoming waves are k‚ÄČőī(u)k\,\delta(u) and l‚ÄČőī(v)l\,\delta(v) where k,lk, l are real constants and u=0,v=0u=0, v=0 are intersecting null hypersurfaces. The cosmological constant őõ\Lambda in the post collision region of the space--time is given by őõ=‚ąí6‚ÄČk‚ÄČl\Lambda=-6\,k\,l.Comment: 12 pages, Latex file, published pape

    Bursts of Radiation and Recoil Effects in Electromagnetism and Gravitation

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    The Maxwell field of a charge e which experiences an impulsive acceleration or deceleration is constructed explicitly by subdividing Minkowskian space-time into two halves bounded by a future null-cone and then glueing the halves back together with appropriate matching conditions. The resulting retarded radiation can be viewed as instantaneous electromagnetic bremsstrahlung. If we similarly consider a spherically symmetric, moving gravitating mass, to experience an impulsive deceleration, as viewed by a distant observer, then this is accompanied by the emission of a light-like shell whose total energy measured by this observer is the same as the kinetic energy of the source before it stops. This phenomenon is a recoil effect which may be thought of as a limiting case of a Kinnersley rocket.Comment: 24 pages LaTeX2e, 2 figures (included). Published in Class. Quant. Gravit

    Braking--Radiation: An Energy Source for a Relativistic Fireball

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    If the Schwarzschild black-hole is moving rectilinearly with uniform 3-velocity and suddenly stops, according to a distant observer, then we demonstrate that this observer will see a spherical light--like shell or "relativistic fireball" radiate outwards with energy equal to the original kinetic energy of the black-hole.Comment: 6 pages, LateX2e. Published in Phys. Lett.

    Implications of Spontaneous Glitches in the Mass and Angular Momentum in Kerr Space-Time

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    The outward-pointing principal null direction of the Schwarzschild Riemann tensor is null hypersurface-forming. If the Schwarzschild mass spontaneously jumps across one such hypersurface then the hypersurface is the history of an outgoing light-like shell. The outward-- pointing principal null direction of the Kerr Riemann tensor is asymptotically (in the neighbourhood of future null infinity) null hypersurface-forming. If the Kerr parameters of mass and angular momentum spontaneously jump across one such asymptotic hypersurface then the asymptotic hypersurface is shown to be the history of an outgoing light-like shell and a wire singularity-free spherical impulsive gravitational wave.Comment: 16 pages, TeX, no figures, accepted for publication in Phys. Rev.

    Shear-Free Gravitational Waves in an Anisotropic Universe

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    We study gravitational waves propagating through an anisotropic Bianchi I dust-filled universe (containing the Einstein-de-Sitter universe as a special case). The waves are modeled as small perturbations of this background cosmological model and we choose a family of null hypersurfaces in this space-time to act as the histories of the wavefronts of the radiation. We find that the perturbations we generate can describe pure gravitational radiation if and only if the null hypersurfaces are shear-free. We calculate the gauge-invariant small perturbations explicitly in this case. How these differ from the corresponding perturbations when the background space-time is isotropic is clearly exhibited.Comment: 32 pages, accepted for publication in Physical Review
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