16 research outputs found

    Effects of Feed Additives and Mixed Eimeria Species Infection on Intestinal Microbial Ecology of Broilers

    Get PDF
    Evaluation of digestive microbial ecology is necessary to understand effects of growth-promoting feed. In the current study, the dynamics of intestinal microbial communities (MC) were examined in broilers fed diets supplemented with a combination of antibiotic (bacitracin methylene disalicylate) and ionophore (Coban 60), and diets containing 1 of 2 essential oil (EO) blends, Crina Poultry (CP) and Crina Alternate (CA). Five treatments were analyzed: 1) unmedicated uninfected control; 2) unmedicated infected control; 3) feed additives monensin (bacitracin methylene disalicylate) + monensin (Coban 60; AI); 4) EO blend CP; and 5) EO blend CA. Additives were mixed into a basal feed mixture, and EO were adjusted to 100 ppm. Chicks were infected by oral gavage at 19 d of age with Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. Duodenal, ileal, and cecal samples were taken from 12 birds per treatment just before and 7 d after challenge; 2 samples each were pooled to give a final number of 6 samples total; and all pooled samples were frozen until used for DNA extraction. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to examine PCR-amplified fragments of the bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA variable region. Results are presented as percentages of similarity coefficients (SC). Dendrograms of PCR amplicon or band patterns indicated MC differences due to intestinal location, feed additives, and cocci challenge. Essential oil blends CP and CA affected MC in all gut sections. Each EO had different effects over MC, and they differed in most instances from the AI group. The cocci challenge caused drastic MC population shifts in duodenal, ileal, and cecal sections (36.7, 55.4, and 36.2% SC, respectively). Diets supplemented with CP supported higher SC between pre- and postchallenge MC (89.9, 83.3, and 76.4%) than AI (81.8., 57.4, and 60.0%). We concluded that mixed coccidia challenge caused drastic shifts in MC. These EO blends modulated MC better than AI, avoiding drastic shifts after a mixed challenge

    Responses of Coccidia-Vaccinated Broilers to Essential Oil Blends Supplementation up to Forty-Nine Days of Age

    Get PDF
    Coccidiosis control may become a greater problem as the use of growth-promoting antibiotics (GPA) and ionophores declines. Vaccination with live oocysts may turn into a popular alternative to the use of coccidiostats in broilers, although cocci vaccination is frequently linked to temporary lower performance in young flocks. This experiment evaluates the dietary supplementation of 2 specific essential oil (EO) blends (Crina Poultry and Crina Alternate), either as alternatives to GPA and ionophores (BMD + Coban) or as feed additives that help to improve the performance of cocci-vaccinated broilers. Live performance and lesion scores were observed. These 2 specific EO blends differ in their efficacy to promote growth. Chickens that were not cocci vaccinated and were fed Crina Poultry had better feed conversion ratio (FCR) than the unmedicated control treatment in the starter period. The same EO improved FCR in cocci-vaccinated birds in the finisher period in comparison to the negative control group, but those responses were not significantly different from other treatments or significant at 49 d of age. No significant differences were observed in lesion scores at 37 d. Diets supplemented with a GPA-ionophore combination consistently supported the best BW gain and FCR in each period and the entire grow-out period. No significant beneficial or deleterious effects on live performance were observed due to these specific EO blends in cocci-vaccinated broilers

    Requirements of Sodium and Chloride by Leghorn Laying Hens

    Get PDF
    Sodium and Cl are low-cost nutrients with great influence on feed conversion ratio (FCR), eggshell quality, and excreta moisture. Actual values of dietary requirements of these minerals for commercial laying hens are not well defined. These requirements were reevaluated in a factorial experiment using corn-soybean meal basal diets. No significant influence of Na and Cl levels was observed on egg production (%), egg weight (g), or feed intake (g/d), but levels of these minerals had variable effects on FCR, eggshell quality, and excreta moisture. The optimum requirement of Na changed according to the variable evaluated and level of Cl used

    Enzymes as Feed Additive to Aid in Responses Against Eimeria Species in Coccidia-Vaccinated Broilers Fed Corn-Soybean Meal Diets with Different Protein Levels

    Get PDF
    This research aimed to evaluate the effects of adding a combination of exogenous enzymes to starter diets varying in protein content and fed to broilers vaccinated at day of hatch with live oocysts and then challenged with mixed Eimeria spp. Five hundred four 1-d-old male Cobb-500 chickens were distributed in 72 cages. The design consisted of 12 treatments. Three anticoccidial control programs [ionophore (IO), coccidian vaccine (COV), and coccidia-vaccine + enzymes (COV + EC)] were evaluated under 3 CP levels (19, 21, and 23%), and 3 unmedicated-uninfected (UU) negative controls were included for each one of the protein levels. All chickens except those in unmedicated-uninfected negative controls were infected at 17 d of age with a mixed oral inoculum of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. Live performance, lesion scores, oocyst counts, and samples for gut microflora profiles were evaluated 7 d postinfection. Ileal digestibility of amino acids (IDAA) was determined 8 d postinfection. Microbial communities (MC) were analyzed by G + C%, microbial numbers were counted by flow cytometry, and IgA concentrations were measured by ELISA. The lowest CP diets had poorer (P ≤ 0.001) BW gain and feed conversion ratio in the preinfection period. Coccidia-vaccinated broilers had lower performance than the ones fed ionophore diets during pre- and postchallenge periods. Intestinal lesion scores were affected (P ≤ 0.05) by anticoccidial control programs, but responses changed according to gut section. Feed additives or vaccination had no effect (P ≥ 0.05) on IDAA, and diets with 23% CP had the lowest (P ≤ 0.001) IDAA. Coccidial infection had no effect on MC numbers in the ileum but reduced MC numbers in ceca and suppressed ileal IgA production. The COV + EC treatment modulated MC during mixed coccidiosis infection but did not significantly improve chicken performance. Results indicated that feed enzymes may be used to modulate the gut microflora of cocci-vaccinated broiler chickens

    Effects of full-fat high-oleic soybean meal in layer diets on nutrient digestibility and egg quality parameters of a white laying hen strain

    Get PDF
    This study was conducted to understand the impact of including full fat high-oleic soybean meal in layer hen diets on nutrient digestibility and added nutritional value in eggs. Forty-eight layers (∼36 wk old) were randomly assigned to one of 4 isonitrogenous (18.5% crude protein) treatment diets with 12 replicate birds per treatment in a 3-wk study. Treatments were 1) solvent extracted defatted soybean meal + corn diet, 2) dry extruded defatted soybean meal + corn, 3) full-fat soybean meal + corn, 4) high-oleic full-fat soybean meal + corn diet. Apparent ileal digestibility of crude fat (CF) and crude protein (CP) were determined using celite (∼2%) as an indigestible marker. Tibia strength and egg quality parameters (egg weight, shell strength, Haugh unit, shell color, and yolk color) were recorded during the study. Fatty acid profiles, including the monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid (C18:1, cis), in eggs and adipogenic tissue (liver, muscle, and fat pad) were measured using gas chromatography (GC-FID). Digestibility values of CF ranged from 71 to 84% and CP varied from 67 to 72% for treatment diets, with treatment mean values being no different (P \u3e 0.05) between treatment diets. No differences between treatment diets in tibia strength or egg quality parameters (egg weight, shell strength, and Haugh unit) were observed (P \u3e 0.05) except for yolk color. Similarly, there were no differences in the total lipids in egg yolk (P \u3e 0.05) between treatment diets. However, oleic acid percentage of total lipid in egg and tissue was significantly higher (P \u3c 0.001) in hens given the high-oleic full-fat soybean meal diet than in other treatment groups. No difference was observed in oleic acid percentage of total lipid in egg between the other 3 treatment diets (P \u3e 0.05). Overall, the results exhibited that the eggs and tissue of layer hens fed the full-fat high-oleic acid soybean meal diet were higher in oleic acid while the CF and CP digestibility remained similar to the digestibility of the other diets

    Modeling energy utilization and growth parameter description for broiler chickens

    No full text
    Two experiments were conducted to develop and evaluate a model to estimate ME requirements and determine Gompertz growth parameters for broilers. The first experiment was conducted to determine maintenance energy requirements and the efficiencies of energy utilization for fat and protein deposition. Maintenance ME (ME m) requirements were estimated to be 157.8, 112.1, and 127.2 kcal of ME/kg 0.75 per day for broilers at 13, 23, and 32°C, respectively. Environmental temperature (T) had a quadratic effect on maintenance requirements (ME m = 307.87 - 15.63T + 0.3105T 2; r 2= 0.93). Energy requirements for fat and protein deposition were estimated to be 13.52 and 12.59 kcal of ME/g, respectively. Based on these coefficients, a model was developed to calculate daily ME requirements: ME = BW 0.75 (307.87 - 15.63T + 0.3105 T 2) + 13.52 G f + 12.59 G p. This model considers live BW, the effects of environmental temperature, and fractional fat (G f) and protein (G p) deposition. The second experiment was carried out to estimate the growth parameters of Ross broilers and to collect data to evaluate the ME requirement model proposed. Live BW, empty feather-free carcass, weight of the feathers, and carcass chemical compositions were analyzed until 16 wk of age. Parameters of Gompertz curves for each component were estimated. Males had higher growth potential and higher capacity to deposit nutrients than females, except for fat deposition. Data of BW and body composition collected in this experiment were fitted into the energy model proposed herein and the equations described by Emmans (1989) and Chwalibog (1991). The daily ME requirements estimated by the model determined in this study were closer to the ME intake observed in this trial compared with other models. ©2005 Poultry Science Association, Inc

    Molecular Identification and Characterization of Ileal and Cecal Fungus Communities in Broilers Given Probiotics, Specific Essential Oil Blends, and Under Mixed Eimeria Infection

    No full text
    Broiler digestive tract fungal communities have gained far less scrutiny than that given corresponding bacterial communities. Attention given poultry-associated fungi have focused primarily on feed-associated toxin-producers, yeast, and yeast products. The current project focused on the use of pyrosequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to identify and monitor broiler digestive fungal communities. Eight different treatments were included. Four controls were an Uninfected-Unmedicated Control, an Unmedicated-Infected Control, the antibiotic bacitracin methylene disalicylate plus the ionophore monensin as Positive Control, and the ionophore monensin alone as a Negative Control. Four treatments were two probiotics (BC-30 and Calsporin) and two specific essential oil blends (Crina Poultry Plus and Crina Poultry AF). All chickens except the Unmedicated-Uninfected Control were given, at 15 days of age, a standard oral Eimeria inoculum of sporulated oocysts. Ileal and cecal digesta were collected at pre-Eimeria infection at 14 days of age and at 7 days post-Eimeria infection at 22 days of age. Extracted cecal DNA was analyzed by pyrosequencing to examine the impact of diet supplements and Eimeria infection on individual constituents in the fungal community, while DGGE was used to compare more qualitative changes in ileal and cecal communities. Pyrosequencing identified three phyla, seven classes, eight orders, 13 families, 17 genera, and 23 fungal species. Ileal and cecal DGGE patterns showed fungal communities were clustered mainly into pre- and post-infection patterns. Post-infection Unmedicated-Uninfected patterns were clustered with pre-infection groups demonstrating a strong effect of Eimeria infection on digestive fungal populations. These combined techniques offered added versatility towards unraveling the effects of enteropathogen infection and performance enhancing feed additives on broiler digestive microflora

    Ileal and caecal microbial populations in broilers given specific essential oil blends and probiotics in two consecutive grow-outs

    No full text
    Specific essential oil (EO) blends and probiotics used as feed additives have been shown to promote healthy digestive microbials resulting in improved poultry production. Two consecutive experiments were conducted with broilers fed corn-soybean meal diets to determine comparative effects of feed additives on ileal and caecal microbial populations (MP). Ross 708 broilers were placed in 84 pens with previously used litter and treatments maintained in the same pens for both experiments. Eight treatment groups were fed diets containing: Bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) as positive control (PC); no additives as negative control (NC); three probiotics: BC-30; BioPlus 2B (B2B); and Calsporin; and the essential oil blends Crina Poultry Plus (CPP) at 300 or 150 ppm in the first experiment; and CPP at 300 ppm and Crina Poultry AF at 100 ppm in experiment 2. Starter and grower diets contained the ionophore (Coban). Ileal and caecal samples were collected at 43 days of age from male broilers. The DNA of microbial populations was isolated from digesta samples and analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to generate percentage similarity coefficients (%SC) from band pattern dendrograms. Differences were observed in ileal and caecal populations depending on treatment, respectively, and especially between experiments. Broilers fed diets with probiotics had very similar MP. The EO CPP at 300 ppm resulted in ilea! MP similar to those observed in chickens fed probiotics. We concluded that antibiotic treatment affected ileal, but no caecal MP. More pronounced changes in ileal and caecal MP were seen in broilers at 43 days of age following probiotic and essential oil treatments
    corecore