1,672 research outputs found

    The Gravitational Wave Signature of Core-Collapse Supernovae

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    We review the ensemble of anticipated gravitational-wave (GW) emission processes in stellar core collapse and postbounce core-collapse supernova evolution. We discuss recent progress in the modeling of these processes and summarize most recent GW signal estimates. In addition, we present new results on the GW emission from postbounce convective overturn and protoneutron star g-mode pulsations based on axisymmetric radiation-hydrodynamic calculations. Galactic core-collapse supernovae are very rare events, but within 3-5 Mpc from Earth, the rate jumps to 1 in ~2 years. Using the set of currently available theoretical gravitational waveforms, we compute upper-limit optimal signal-to-noise ratios based on current and advanced LIGO/GEO600/VIRGO noise curves for the recent SN 2008bk which exploded at ~3.9 Mpc. While initial LIGOs cannot detect GWs emitted by core-collapse events at such a distance, we find that advanced LIGO-class detectors could put significant upper limits on the GW emission strength for such events. We study the potential occurrence of the various GW emission processes in particular supernova explosion scenarios and argue that the GW signatures of neutrino-driven, magneto-rotational, and acoustically-driven core-collapse SNe may be mutually exclusive. We suggest that even initial LIGOs could distinguish these explosion mechanisms based on the detection (or non-detection) of GWs from a galactic core-collapse supernova.Comment: Topical Review, accepted for publication in CQG. 51 pages, 13 figures, a version of the article with high-resolution figures is available from http://stellarcollapse.org/papers/Ott_SN_GW_review2008.pdf. Update: Added section on core collapse simulations and the treatment of general relativit

    The Progenitor Dependence of the Preexplosion Neutrino Emission in Core-Collapse Supernovae

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    We perform spherically-symmetric general-relativistic simulations of core collapse and the postbounce preexplosion phase in 32 presupernova stellar models of solar metallicity with zero-age-main-sequence masses of 12 M_{sun} to 120 M_{sun}. Using energy-dependent three-species neutrino transport in the two-moment approximation with an analytic closure, we show that the emitted neutrino luminosities and spectra follow very systematic trends that are correlated with the compactness (~M/R) of the progenitor star's inner regions via the accretion rate in the preexplosion phase. We find that these qualitative trends depend only weakly on the nuclear equation of state, but quantitative observational statements will require independent constraints on the equation of state and the rotation rate of the core as well as a more complete understanding of neutrino oscillations. We investigate the simulated response of water Cherenkov detectors to the electron antineutrino fluxes from our models and find that the large statistics of a galactic core collapse event may allow robust conclusions on the inner structure of the progenitor star.Comment: 16 emulateapj pages, 10 figures, 1 table. matches published versio

    The Role of Turbulence in Neutrino-Driven Core-Collapse Supernova Explosions

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    The neutrino-heated "gain layer" immediately behind the stalled shock in a core-collapse supernova is unstable to high-Reynolds-number turbulent convection. We carry out and analyze a new set of 19 high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) simulations with a three-species neutrino leakage/heating scheme and compare with spherically-symmetric (1D) and axisymmetric (2D) simulations carried out with the same methods. We study the postbounce supernova evolution in a 1515-MM_\odot progenitor star and vary the local neutrino heating rate, the magnitude and spatial dependence of asphericity from convective burning in the Si/O shell, and spatial resolution. Our simulations suggest that there is a direct correlation between the strength of turbulence in the gain layer and the susceptability to explosion. 2D and 3D simulations explode at much lower neutrino heating rates than 1D simulations. This is commonly explained by the fact that nonradial dynamics allows accreting material to stay longer in the gain layer. We show that this explanation is incomplete. Our results indicate that the effective turbulent ram pressure exerted on the shock plays a crucial role by allowing multi-D models to explode at a lower postshock thermal pressure and thus with less neutrino heating than 1D models. We connect the turbulent ram pressure with turbulent energy at large scales and in this way explain why 2D simulations are erroneously exploding more easily than 3D simulations.Comment: 13 pages, 8 figures, accepted by Ap

    Supernova Fallback onto Magnetars and Propeller-powered Supernovae

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    We explore fallback accretion onto newly born magnetars during the supernova of massive stars. Strong magnetic fields (~10^(15) G) and short spin periods (~1-10 ms) have an important influence on how the magnetar interacts with the infalling material. At long spin periods, weak magnetic fields, and high accretion rates, sufficient material is accreted to form a black hole, as is commonly found for massive progenitor stars. When B ≾ 5 × 10^(14) G, accretion causes the magnetar to spin sufficiently rapidly to deform triaxially and produces gravitational waves, but only for ≈50-200 s until it collapses to a black hole. Conversely, at short spin periods, strong magnetic fields, and low accretion rates, the magnetar is in the "propeller regime" and avoids becoming a black hole by expelling incoming material. This process spins down the magnetar, so that gravitational waves are only expected if the initial protoneutron star is spinning rapidly. Even when the magnetar survives, it accretes at least ≈0.3 M_☉, so we expect magnetars born within these types of environments to be more massive than the 1.4 M_☉ typically associated with neutron stars. The propeller mechanism converts the ~10^(52)erg of spin energy in the magnetar into the kinetic energy of an outflow, which shock heats the outgoing supernova ejecta during the first ~10-30 s. For a small ~5 M_☉ hydrogen-poor envelope, this energy creates a brighter, faster evolving supernova with high ejecta velocities ~(1-3) × 10^4 km s^(–1) and may appear as a broad-lined Type Ib/c supernova. For a large ≳ 10 M_☉ hydrogen-rich envelope, the result is a bright Type IIP supernova with a plateau luminosity of ≳ 10^(43)erg s^(–1) lasting for a timescale of ~60-80 days

    Low-mass X-ray binaries from black-hole retaining globular clusters

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    Recent studies suggest that globular clusters (GCs) may retain a substantial population of stellar-mass black holes (BHs), in contrast to the long-held belief of a few to zero BHs. We model the population of BH low-mass X-ray binaries (BH-LMXBs), an ideal observable proxy for elusive single BHs, produced from a representative group of Milky Way GCs with variable BH populations. We simulate the formation of BH-binaries in GCs through exchange interactions between binary and single stars in the company of tens to hundreds of BHs. Additionally, we consider the impact of the BH population on the rate of compact binaries undergoing gravitational wave driven mergers. The characteristics of the BH-LMXB population and binary properties are sensitive to the GCs structural parameters as well as its unobservable BH population. We find that GCs retaining 1000\sim 1000 BHs produce a galactic population of 150\sim 150 ejected BH-LMXBs whereas GCs retaining only 20\sim20 BHs produce zero ejected BH-LMXBs. Moreover, we explore the possibility that some of the presently known BH-LMXBs might have originated in GCs and identify five candidate systems.Comment: 27 pages, 18 figures, 7 tables, submitted to MNRA

    Massive Computation for Understanding Core-Collapse Supernova Explosions

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    How do massive stars explode? Progress toward the answer is driven by increases in compute power. Petascale supercomputers are enabling detailed 3D simulations of core-collapse supernovae that are elucidating the role of fluid instabilities, turbulence, and magnetic field amplification in supernova engines

    Implicit large eddy simulations of anisotropic weakly compressible turbulence with application to core-collapse supernovae

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    (Abridged) In the implicit large eddy simulation (ILES) paradigm, the dissipative nature of high-resolution shock-capturing schemes is exploited to provide an implicit model of turbulence. Recent 3D simulations suggest that turbulence might play a crucial role in core-collapse supernova explosions, however the fidelity with which turbulence is simulated in these studies is unclear. Especially considering that the accuracy of ILES for the regime of interest in CCSN, weakly compressible and strongly anisotropic, has not been systematically assessed before. In this paper we assess the accuracy of ILES using numerical methods most commonly employed in computational astrophysics by means of a number of local simulations of driven, weakly compressible, anisotropic turbulence. We report a detailed analysis of the way in which the turbulent cascade is influenced by the numerics. Our results suggest that anisotropy and compressibility in CCSN turbulence have little effect on the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum and a Kolmogorov k5/3k^{-5/3} scaling is obtained in the inertial range. We find that, on the one hand, the kinetic energy dissipation rate at large scales is correctly captured even at relatively low resolutions, suggesting that very high effective Reynolds number can be achieved at the largest scales of the simulation. On the other hand, the dynamics at intermediate scales appears to be completely dominated by the so-called bottleneck effect, \ie the pile up of kinetic energy close to the dissipation range due to the partial suppression of the energy cascade by numerical viscosity. An inertial range is not recovered until the point where relatively high resolution 5123\sim 512^3, which would be difficult to realize in global simulations, is reached. We discuss the consequences for CCSN simulations.Comment: 17 pages, 9 figures, matches published versio

    Results From Core-Collapse Simulations with Multi-Dimensional, Multi-Angle Neutrino Transport

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    We present new results from the only 2D multi-group, multi-angle calculations of core-collapse supernova evolution. The first set of results from these calculations was published in Ott et al. (2008). We have followed a nonrotating and a rapidly rotating 20 solar mass model for ~400 ms after bounce. We show that the radiation fields vary much less with angle than the matter quantities in the region of net neutrino heating. This obtains because most neutrinos are emitted from inner radiative regions and because the specific intensity is an integral over sources from many angles at depth. The latter effect can only be captured by multi-angle transport. We then compute the phase relationship between dipolar oscillations in the shock radius and in matter and radiation quantities throughout the postshock region. We demonstrate a connection between variations in neutrino flux and the hydrodynamical shock oscillations, and use a variant of the Rayleigh test to estimate the detectability of these neutrino fluctuations in IceCube and Super-K. Neglecting flavor oscillations, fluctuations in our nonrotating model would be detectable to ~10 kpc in IceCube, and a detailed power spectrum could be measured out to ~5 kpc. These distances are considerably lower in our rapidly rotating model or with significant flavor oscillations. Finally, we measure the impact of rapid rotation on detectable neutrino signals. Our rapidly rotating model has strong, species-dependent asymmetries in both its peak neutrino flux and its light curves. The peak flux and decline rate show pole-equator ratios of up to ~3 and ~2, respectively.Comment: 13 pages, 9 figures, ApJ accepted. Replaced with accepted versio