268 research outputs found

    Finding passwords by random walks: How long does it take?

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    We compare an efficiency of a deterministic "lawnmower" and random search strategies for finding a prescribed sequence of letters (a password) of length M in which all letters are taken from the same Q-ary alphabet. We show that at best a random search takes two times longer than a "lawnmower" search.Comment: To appear in J. Phys. A, special issue on "Random Search Problem: Trends and Perspectives", eds.: MEG da Luz, E Raposo, GM Viswanathan and A Grosber

    Proportionate vs disproportionate distribution of wealth of two individuals in a tempered Paretian ensemble

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    We study the distribution P(\omega) of the random variable \omega = x_1/(x_1 + x_2), where x_1 and x_2 are the wealths of two individuals selected at random from the same tempered Paretian ensemble characterized by the distribution \Psi(x) \sim \phi(x)/x^{1 + \alpha}, where \alpha > 0 is the Pareto index and ϕ(x)\phi(x) is the cut-off function. We consider two forms of \phi(x): a bounded function \phi(x) = 1 for L \leq x \leq H, and zero otherwise, and a smooth exponential function \phi(x) = \exp(-L/x - x/H). In both cases \Psi(x) has moments of arbitrary order. We show that, for \alpha > 1, P(\omega) always has a unimodal form and is peaked at \omega = 1/2, so that most probably x_1 \approx x_2. For 0 < \alpha < 1 we observe a more complicated behavior which depends on the value of \delta = L/H. In particular, for \delta < \delta_c - a certain threshold value - P(\omega) has a three-modal (for a bounded \phi(x)) and a bimodal M-shape (for an exponential \phi(x)) form which signifies that in such ensembles the wealths x_1 and x_2 are disproportionately different.Comment: 9 pages, 8 figures, to appear in Physica

    Single-Species Reactions on a Random Catalytic Chain

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    We present an exact solution for a catalytically-activated annihilation A + A \to 0 reaction taking place on a one-dimensional chain in which some segments (placed at random, with mean concentration p) possess special, catalytic properties. Annihilation reaction takes place, as soon as any two A particles land from the reservoir onto two vacant sites at the extremities of the catalytic segment, or when any A particle lands onto a vacant site on a catalytic segment while the site at the other extremity of this segment is already occupied by another A particle. We find that the disorder-average pressure P(quen)P^{(quen)} per site of such a chain is given by P(quen)=P(lan)+β1FP^{(quen)} = P^{(lan)} + \beta^{-1} F, where P(lan)=β1ln(1+z)P^{(lan)} = \beta^{-1} \ln(1+z) is the Langmuir adsorption pressure, (z being the activity and \beta^{-1} - the temperature), while β1F\beta^{-1} F is the reaction-induced contribution, which can be expressed, under appropriate change of notations, as the Lyapunov exponent for the product of 2 \times 2 random matrices, obtained exactly by Derrida and Hilhorst (J. Phys. A {\bf 16}, 2641 (1983)). Explicit asymptotic formulae for the particle mean density and the compressibility are also presented.Comment: AMSTeX, 17 pages, 1 figure, submitted to J. Phys.

    Binary Reactive Adsorbate on a Random Catalytic Substrate

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    We study the equilibrium properties of a model for a binary mixture of catalytically-reactive monomers adsorbed on a two-dimensional substrate decorated by randomly placed catalytic bonds. The interacting AA and BB monomer species undergo continuous exchanges with particle reservoirs and react (A+BA + B \to \emptyset) as soon as a pair of unlike particles appears on sites connected by a catalytic bond. For the case of annealed disorder in the placement of the catalytic bonds this model can be mapped onto a classical spin model with spin values S=1,0,+1S = -1,0,+1, with effective couplings dependent on the temperature and on the mean density qq of catalytic bonds. This allows us to exploit the mean-field theory developed for the latter to determine the phase diagram as a function of qq in the (symmetric) case in which the chemical potentials of the particle reservoirs, as well as the AAA-A and BBB-B interactions are equal.Comment: 12 pages, 4 figure