531 research outputs found

    Model-Free Impulse Responses

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    This paper introduces methods for computing impulse response functions that do not require specification and estimation of the unknown dynamic multivariate system itself. The central idea behind these methods is to estimate flexible local projections at each period of interest rather than extrapolating into increasingly distant horizons from a given model, as it is usually done in vector autoregressions (VAR). The advantages of local projections are numerous: (1) they can be estimated by simple regression techniques with standard regression packages; (2) they are more robust to misspecification; (3) standard error calculation is direct; and (4) they easily accommodate experimentation with highly non-linear and flexible specifications that may be impractical in a multivariate context. Therefore, these methods are a natural alternative to estimating impulse responses from VARs. An application to a simple, closed-economy monetary model suggests that the output loss and inflation effects of an interest rate shock depend on the stage of the business cycle.impulse response function, local projection, vector autoregression, nonlinear

    Model-Free Impulse Responses

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    This paper introduces methods for computing impulse response functions that do not require specification and estimation of the unknown dynamic multivariate system itself. The central idea behind these methods is to estimate flexible local projections at each period of interest rather than extrapolating into increasingly distant horizons from a given model, as it is usually done in vector autoregressions (VAR). The advantages of local projections are numerous: (1) they can be estimated by simple regression techniques with standard regression packages; (2) they are more robust to misspecification; (3) standard error calculation is direct; and (4) they easily accommodate experimentation with highly non-linear and flexible specifications that may be impractical in a multivariate context. Therefore, these methods are a natural alternative to estimating impulse responses from VARs. An application to a simple, closed-economy monetary model suggests that the output loss and inflation effects of an interest rate shock depend on the stage of the business cycle.impulse response function, local projection, vector autoregression, nonlinear

    Carry Trade

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    To appear in the Encyclopedia of Financial Globalizationcarry trade, uncovered interest rate parity, purchasing power parity, arbitrage

    Estimation and Inference by the Method of Projection Minimum Distance

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    A covariance-stationary vector of variables has a Wold representation whose coefficients can be semiparametrically estimated by local projections (Jordà, 2005). Substituting the Wold representations for variables in model expressions generates restrictions that can be used by the method of minimum distance to estimate model parameters. We call this estimator projection minimum distance (PMD) and show that its parameter estimates are consistent and asymptotically normal. In many cases, PMD is asymptotically equivalent to maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and nests GMM as a special case. In fact, models whose ML estimation would require numerical routines (such as VARMA models) can often be estimated by simple least-squares routines and almost as efficiently by PMD. Because PMD imposes no constraints on the dynamics of the system, it is often consistent in many situations where alternative estimators would be inconsistent. We provide several Monte Carlo experiments and an empirical application in support of the new techniques introduced.impulse response, local projection, minimum chi-square, minimum distance

    Projection Minimum Distance: An Estimator for Dynamic Macroeconomic Models

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    This paper introduces an estimator for dynamic macroeconomic models where possibly the dynamics and the variables described therein are incomplete representations of a larger, unknown macroeconomic system. We call this estimator projection minimum distance (PMD) and show that it is consistent and asymptotically normal. Many times, PMD can provide consistent estimates of structural parameters even when the dynamics of the macroeconomic model are insufficient to account for the serial correlation of the data or correlation with information omitted from the model. PMD provides an overall specification chi-squared test based on the distance between the impulse responses of the model and their semi-parametric estimates from the data. PMD only requires two, simple, least-squares steps and can be generalized to more complex, nonlinear environments.

    Time-Scale Transformations of Discrete-Time Processes

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    This paper investigates the effects of temporal aggregation when the aggregation frequency is variable and possibly stochastic. The results that we report include, as a particular case, the well-known results on fixed-interval aggregation, such as when monthly data is aggregated into quarters. A variable aggregation frequency implies that the aggregated process will exhibit time-varying parameters and non-spherical disturbances, even when these characteristics are absent from the original model. Consequently, we develop methods for specification and estimation of the aggregate models and show with an example how these methods perform in practice.time aggregation, time-scale transformation, irregularly spaced data, autoregressive conditional intensity model.

    The Response of Term Rates to Monetary Policy Uncertainty

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    This paper shows that greater uncertainty about monetary policy can lead to a decline in nominal interest rates. In the context of a limited participation model, monetary policy uncertainty is modeled as a mean-preserving spread in the distribution for the money growth process. This increase in uncertainty lowers the yield on short-term maturity bonds because the household sector responds by increasing liquidity in the banking sector. Long-term maturity bonds also have lower yields but this decrease is a result of the effect that greater uncertainty has on the nominal intertemporal rate of substitution - which is a convex function of money growth. These predictions are broadly supported by the data: the conditional variance of monetary policy shocks identified from a conventional monetary VAR negatively affects the yields of federal funds, and the three and six-month treasury bills.limited participation, term structure, time-varying uncertainty

    Monetary Policy Coordination: A New Empirical Approach

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    This paper examines the degree of monetary policy coordination between major industrialized countries from a completely new perspective. The analysis uses a new data set on central bank issued interest rate targets for 14 OECD countries. The methodology that we use decomposes the notion of coordination into two components: (1) Do countries coordinate the timing of their monetary policy actions? and (2) Is there coordination in the direction in which targets are changed? The answers to these two questions are based on a newly developed dynamic discrete duration model (the autoregressive conditional hazard model or ACH) and on an ordered response model in event time. The results indicate there is significant policy coordination among these 14 countries during the 1980-1998 sample period in contrast to recent theoretical work suggesting that gains to coordination are small. Moreover, this coordination appears to work through channels other than documented coordination agreements.monetary policy, international coordination, interest rate targets
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